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Review

Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Complications: State of Art

1
Rehabilitation Department, A.O.U. “San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona”, 84125 Salerno, Italy
2
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende 43, 84081 Baronissi, Italy
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Associazione Italiana Fisioterapia (A.I.FI.) sezione territoriale Campania, Via Pinerolo 3, 00182 Roma, Italy
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Vascular Physiopathology Unit, Department of Angio-Cardio-Neurology, IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
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Heart Department, University Hospital “San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona”, 84125 Salerno, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angus Hunter
Life 2021, 11(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030259
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 21 March 2021
Recent scientific literature has investigated the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The mechanisms of cardiovascular damage seem to involve the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to which severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) binds to penetrate cells and other mechanisms, most of which are still under study. Cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19 include heart failure, cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. This article aims to collect scientific evidence by exploiting PubMed, Scopus, and Pedro databases to highlight the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 and to define the physiotherapy treatment recommended for these patients. Exercise training (ET), an important part of cardiac rehabilitation, is a powerful tool in physiotherapy, capable of inducing significant changes in the cardiovascular system and functional in the recovery of endothelial dysfunction and for the containment of thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, due to the wide variety of possible exercise programs that can be obtained by combining intensity, duration, and speed in various ways, and by adjusting the program based on continuous patient monitoring, exercise training is well suited to the treatment of post-COVID patients with an impaired cardiovascular system of various degrees. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; rehabilitation; cardiovascular COVID-19; rehabilitation; cardiovascular
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calabrese, M.; Garofano, M.; Palumbo, R.; Di Pietro, P.; Izzo, C.; Damato, A.; Venturini, E.; Iesu, S.; Virtuoso, N.; Strianese, A.; Ciccarelli, M.; Galasso, G.; Vecchione, C. Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Complications: State of Art. Life 2021, 11, 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030259

AMA Style

Calabrese M, Garofano M, Palumbo R, Di Pietro P, Izzo C, Damato A, Venturini E, Iesu S, Virtuoso N, Strianese A, Ciccarelli M, Galasso G, Vecchione C. Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Complications: State of Art. Life. 2021; 11(3):259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calabrese, Mariaconsiglia, Marina Garofano, Roberta Palumbo, Paola Di Pietro, Carmine Izzo, Antonio Damato, Eleonora Venturini, Severino Iesu, Nicola Virtuoso, Andrea Strianese, Michele Ciccarelli, Gennaro Galasso, and Carmine Vecchione. 2021. "Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Complications: State of Art" Life 11, no. 3: 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030259

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