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Article

Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Ki-67, pRB, MMP-9 and Bax in Human Secondary Palate Development

1
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
3
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
4
Health Care Center Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
5
Department of Orthodontics, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
6
Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
7
Department of Orthodontics, University of Montenergo, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Friedrich Jung
Life 2021, 11(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020164
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey—Advances in Life Sciences)
We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, pRb, Bax, and MMP-9 during the human secondary palate formation (7th to 12th developmental weeks (DWs). The most significant proliferation was observed in the seventh DW with 32% of Ki-67-positive cells in the epithelium, while loose ectomesenchyme condensations (lec) and loose non-condensing ectomesenchyme (lnc) had only 18 and 11%, respectively (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.001), and diminished afterwards. Contrarily, pRb-positive cells were mostly located in the lnc (67%), with significant difference in comparison to epithelium and lec in all investigated periods (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.001). Ki-67- and pRb-positive cells co-expressed occasionally in all investigated periods. MMP-9 displayed a strong expression pattern with the highest number of positive cells during the seventh DW in the epithelium, with significant difference in comparison to lec and lnc (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.0001). The ninth DW is particularly important for the Bax expression, especially in the epithelium (84%), in comparison to lec (58%) and lnc (47%) (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.001). The co-expression of Bax and MMP-9 was seen only in the epithelium during seventh and ninth DWs. Our study indicates the parallel persistence of proliferation (Ki-67, pRb) and remodeling (MMP-9) that enables growth and apoptotic activity (Bax) that enable the removal of the epithelial cells at the fusion point during secondary palate formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: palatogenesis; human; development; Bax; Ki-67; pRb; MMP-9 palatogenesis; human; development; Bax; Ki-67; pRb; MMP-9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šimić Bilandžija, T.; Vukojević, K.; Ćorić, A.; Vuković Kekez, I.; Medvedec Mikić, I.; Lasić Arapović, L.; Filipović, N.; Anđelić, J.; Saraga-Babić, M.; Kalibović Govorko, D. Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Ki-67, pRB, MMP-9 and Bax in Human Secondary Palate Development. Life 2021, 11, 164. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020164

AMA Style

Šimić Bilandžija T, Vukojević K, Ćorić A, Vuković Kekez I, Medvedec Mikić I, Lasić Arapović L, Filipović N, Anđelić J, Saraga-Babić M, Kalibović Govorko D. Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Ki-67, pRB, MMP-9 and Bax in Human Secondary Palate Development. Life. 2021; 11(2):164. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šimić Bilandžija, Tanja, Katarina Vukojević, Anka Ćorić, Ivna Vuković Kekez, Ivana Medvedec Mikić, Lidija Lasić Arapović, Natalija Filipović, Jasminka Anđelić, Mirna Saraga-Babić, and Danijela Kalibović Govorko. 2021. "Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Ki-67, pRB, MMP-9 and Bax in Human Secondary Palate Development" Life 11, no. 2: 164. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020164

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