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Review

The Prebiotic Kitchen: A Guide to Composing Prebiotic Soup Recipes to Test Origins of Life Hypotheses

1
Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53715, USA
2
Earth and Planets Laboratory, The Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015, USA
3
Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
4
Blue Marble Space Institute for Science, Seattle, WA 97154, USA
5
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA
6
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT 06050, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexander Ruf, Oliver Trapp and Louis B. Le Sergeant D’Hendecourt
Life 2021, 11(11), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111221
Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 30 October 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Chemical Evolution regarding the Origin(s) of Life)
“Prebiotic soup” often features in discussions of origins of life research, both as a theoretical concept when discussing abiological pathways to modern biochemical building blocks and, more recently, as a feedstock in prebiotic chemistry experiments focused on discovering emergent, systems-level processes such as polymerization, encapsulation, and evolution. However, until now, little systematic analysis has gone into the design of well-justified prebiotic mixtures, which are needed to facilitate experimental replicability and comparison among researchers. This paper explores principles that should be considered in choosing chemical mixtures for prebiotic chemistry experiments by reviewing the natural environmental conditions that might have created such mixtures and then suggests reasonable guidelines for designing recipes. We discuss both “assembled” mixtures, which are made by mixing reagent grade chemicals, and “synthesized” mixtures, which are generated directly from diversity-generating primary prebiotic syntheses. We discuss different practical concerns including how to navigate the tremendous uncertainty in the chemistry of the early Earth and how to balance the desire for using prebiotically realistic mixtures with experimental tractability and replicability. Examples of two assembled mixtures, one based on materials likely delivered by carbonaceous meteorites and one based on spark discharge synthesis, are presented to illustrate these challenges. We explore alternative procedures for making synthesized mixtures using recursive chemical reaction systems whose outputs attempt to mimic atmospheric and geochemical synthesis. Other experimental conditions such as pH and ionic strength are also considered. We argue that developing a handful of standardized prebiotic recipes may facilitate coordination among researchers and enable the identification of the most promising mechanisms by which complex prebiotic mixtures were “tamed” during the origin of life to give rise to key living processes such as self-propagation, information processing, and adaptive evolution. We end by advocating for the development of a public prebiotic chemistry database containing experimental methods (including soup recipes), results, and analytical pipelines for analyzing complex prebiotic mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotic chemistry; prebiotic synthesis; prebiotic soup; prebiotic mixture; origin of life prebiotic chemistry; prebiotic synthesis; prebiotic soup; prebiotic mixture; origin of life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vincent, L.; Colón-Santos, S.; Cleaves, H.J., II; Baum, D.A.; Maurer, S.E. The Prebiotic Kitchen: A Guide to Composing Prebiotic Soup Recipes to Test Origins of Life Hypotheses. Life 2021, 11, 1221. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111221

AMA Style

Vincent L, Colón-Santos S, Cleaves HJ II, Baum DA, Maurer SE. The Prebiotic Kitchen: A Guide to Composing Prebiotic Soup Recipes to Test Origins of Life Hypotheses. Life. 2021; 11(11):1221. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vincent, Lena, Stephanie Colón-Santos, H. J. Cleaves II, David A. Baum, and Sarah E. Maurer. 2021. "The Prebiotic Kitchen: A Guide to Composing Prebiotic Soup Recipes to Test Origins of Life Hypotheses" Life 11, no. 11: 1221. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111221

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