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Open AccessArticle

Assessing Viral Abundance and Community Composition in Four Contrasting Regions of the Southern Ocean

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Institut de Ciències del Mar-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga, 29640 Fuengirola, Spain
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C/Condi de la Cañada s/n, 10857 Acebo (Cáceres), Spain
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Laboratoire d’Océanographie Microbienne, (CNRS UMR7621), 66650 Banyuls sur Mer, France
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Red Sea Research Center (RSRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
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Institute of Oceanography and Global Change (IOCAG), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35214 Telde, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2020, 10(7), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070107
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Networks in Polar Areas)
We explored how changes of viral abundance and community composition among four contrasting regions in the Southern Ocean relied on physicochemical and microbiological traits. During January–February 2015, we visited areas north and south of the South Orkney Islands (NSO and SSO) characterized by low temperature and salinity and high inorganic nutrient concentration, north of South Georgia Island (NSG) and west of Anvers Island (WA), which have relatively higher temperatures and lower inorganic nutrient concentrations. Surface viral abundance (VA) was highest in NSG (21.50 ± 10.70 × 106 viruses mL−1) and lowest in SSO (2.96 ± 1.48 × 106 viruses mL−1). VA was positively correlated with temperature, prokaryote abundance and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, chlorophyll a, diatoms, haptophytes, fluorescent organic matter, and isoprene concentration, and was negatively correlated with inorganic nutrients (NO3−, SiO42−, PO43−), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations. Viral communities determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA–polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) were grouped according to the sampling location, being more similar within them than among regions. The first two axes of a canonical correspondence analysis, including physicochemical (temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrients—NO3−, SiO42−, and dimethyl sulfoniopropionate -DMSP- and isoprene concentrations) and microbiological (chlorophyll a, haptophytes and diatom, and prokaryote abundance and prokaryotic heterotrophic production) factors accounted for 62.9% of the variance. The first axis, temperature-related, accounted for 33.8%; the second one, salinity-related, accounted for 29.1%. Thus, different environmental situations likely select different hosts for viruses, leading to distinct viral communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral abundance; viral community composition; prokaryotes; phytoplankton; environmental variables; secondary metabolic compounds; Southern Ocean; Antarctic Ocean; Antarctic Peninsula viral abundance; viral community composition; prokaryotes; phytoplankton; environmental variables; secondary metabolic compounds; Southern Ocean; Antarctic Ocean; Antarctic Peninsula
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sotomayor-Garcia, A.; Montserrat Sala, M.; Ferrera, I.; Estrada, M.; Vázquez-Domínguez, E.; Emelianov, M.; Cortés, P.; Marrasé, C.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Nunes, S.; M. Castillo, Y.; Serrano Cuerva, M.; Sebastián, M.; Dall’Osto, M.; Simó, R.; Vaqué, D. Assessing Viral Abundance and Community Composition in Four Contrasting Regions of the Southern Ocean. Life 2020, 10, 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070107

AMA Style

Sotomayor-Garcia A, Montserrat Sala M, Ferrera I, Estrada M, Vázquez-Domínguez E, Emelianov M, Cortés P, Marrasé C, Ortega-Retuerta E, Nunes S, M. Castillo Y, Serrano Cuerva M, Sebastián M, Dall’Osto M, Simó R, Vaqué D. Assessing Viral Abundance and Community Composition in Four Contrasting Regions of the Southern Ocean. Life. 2020; 10(7):107. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sotomayor-Garcia, Ana; Montserrat Sala, Maria; Ferrera, Isabel; Estrada, Marta; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Emelianov, Mikhail; Cortés, Pau; Marrasé, Cèlia; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Nunes, Sdena; M. Castillo, Yaiza; Serrano Cuerva, Maria; Sebastián, Marta; Dall’Osto, Manuel; Simó, Rafel; Vaqué, Dolors. 2020. "Assessing Viral Abundance and Community Composition in Four Contrasting Regions of the Southern Ocean" Life 10, no. 7: 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070107

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