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Open AccessArticle

Gemstones of Greece: Geology and Crystallizing Environments

1
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-15784 Athens, Greece
2
PANGEA Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of NSW, 2052 Sydney, Australia
3
CRPG/CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, GET/IRD et Université de Lorraine, 54501 Vandœuvre cedex, France
4
GeoRessources, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, F-54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France
5
Faculty of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
6
Bahrain Institute for Pearls & Gemstones (DANAT), WTC East Tower, P.O. Box 17236 Manama, Bahrain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(8), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9080461
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems)
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Abstract

In the Hellenides Orogen, minerals of various gem quality occur in various rock types from mainly four tectono-metamorphic units, the Rhodope, Pelagonian, and the Attico-Cycladic massifs, and the Phyllites-Quartzites unit of Crete Island. In crystalline rocks, gemstones are related to both regional metamorphic-metasomatic processes (e.g., gem corundums, Mn-andalusite, thulite/clinothulite, spessartine, titanite, jadeite), and to the formation of late alpine-type fissures, such as, for example, quartz, albite, adularia and titanite. The Tertiary (and Mesozoic) magmatic-hydrothermal environments provide gem-quality sapphire, beryl, garnet, vesuvianite, epidote, fluorite, and SiO2 varieties. The supergene oxidation zone of the Lavrion deposit hosts gem-quality smithsonite and azurite. Coloration in the studied material is either due to various chromophore trace elements present in the crystal structure, or due to inclusions of other mineral phases. Future modern exploration methods combined with gemological investigations (such as treatment and faceting of selected stones), are necessary in order to obtain a better knowledge of the gemstone potential of Greece for its possible exploitation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gemstones; corundum; beryl; jadeitite; garnet; quartz varieties; Greece gemstones; corundum; beryl; jadeitite; garnet; quartz varieties; Greece
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Voudouris, P.; Mavrogonatos, C.; Graham, I.; Giuliani, G.; Tarantola, A.; Melfos, V.; Karampelas, S.; Katerinopoulos, A.; Magganas, A. Gemstones of Greece: Geology and Crystallizing Environments. Minerals 2019, 9, 461.

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