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Open AccessArticle

Exceptional Multi Stage Mineralization of Secondary Minerals in Cavities of Flood Basalts from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India

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Kalkofenstraße 15, D-96194 Walsdorf, Germany
2
Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mineralogy, Brennhausgasse 14, D-09599 Freiberg, Germany
3
Geologische Bundesanstalt, Neulinggasse 38, A-1030 Wien, Austria
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Institut für Erdwissenschaften, Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria
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Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen, Hungary
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Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9060351
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
Flood basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province erupted between about 67.5 to 60.5 Ma ago and reached a thickness of up to 3500 m. The main part consists of compound and simple lava flows with a tholeiitic composition erupted within 500,000 years at about 65 Ma. Within the compound lava flows, vesicles and cavities are frequent. They are filled by secondary minerals partly of well development and large size. This study presents data on the secondary mineralization including detailed field descriptions, optical, cathodoluminescence and SEM microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, fluid inclusions, C and O isotope analyses, and Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The investigations indicate a multistage precipitation sequence with three main stages. During stage I clay minerals and subsurface filamentous fabrics (SFFs), of probably biogenic origin, formed after the lava flows cooled down near to the Earth’s surface. In stage II, first an assemblage of calcite (I) and zeolite (I) (including mordenite, heulandite, and stilbite) as well as plagioclase was overgrown by chalcedony, and finally a second calcite (II) and zeolite (II) generation developed by burial metamorphism by subsequent lava flows. Stage III is characterized by precipitation of a third calcite (III) generation together with powellite and apophyllite from late hydrothermal fluids. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of apophyllite indicate a large time span for stage III. Apophyllite formed within different time intervals from the Paleogene to the early Miocene even within individual lava flows at certain localities. From the Savda/Jalgaon quarry complex, ages cluster at 44–48 Ma and 25–28 Ma, whereas those from the Nashik area are 55–58 Ma and 21–23 Ma, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Deccan Volcanic Province; zeolites; subsurface filamentous fabrics; biosignatures; apophyllite; geochronology; multistage mineralization Deccan Volcanic Province; zeolites; subsurface filamentous fabrics; biosignatures; apophyllite; geochronology; multistage mineralization
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Ottens, B.; Götze, J.; Schuster, R.; Krenn, K.; Hauzenberger, C.; Zsolt, B.; Vennemann, T. Exceptional Multi Stage Mineralization of Secondary Minerals in Cavities of Flood Basalts from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India. Minerals 2019, 9, 351.

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