Next Article in Journal
Compositional Variations and Genesis of Sandy-Gravel Ferromanganese Deposits from the Yōmei Guyot (Holes 431, 431A DSDP), Emperor Ridge
Next Article in Special Issue
Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Late Permian Coals within the Tongzi Coalfield in Guizhou Province, Southwest China
Previous Article in Journal
Low-Carbon Binder for Cemented Paste Backfill: Flowability, Strength and Leaching Characteristics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mineralogical and Environmental Geochemistry of Coal Combustion Products from Shenhuo and Yihua Power Plants in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China
Open AccessArticle

Calcium-Bearing Minerals Transformation during Underground Coal Gasification

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(11), 708;
Received: 20 October 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Minerals in Coal and Coal Combustion Products)
Calcium-bearing minerals are one of the main typical minerals in coal and coal ash. In the process of coal thermal conversion, calcium-bearing minerals undergo different morphological transformation in which the reaction temperature, pressure, and atmosphere are important factors affecting their transformation. The reaction process of underground coal gasification (UCG) could be clearly divided into pyrolysis, reduction, and oxidation and the typical calcium-bearing minerals are expected to indicate the actual reaction conditions of UCG. A high-calcium coal, Zhundong coal, was used in this research. The products of UCG were prepared and the minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The thermodynamic calculation was used to assist in understanding the transformation behaviors of calcium-bearing minerals. The experimental results show that the calcium-bearing mineral is gradually converted from gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) in the raw coal into anhydrite (CaSO4) during the pyrolysis process. In the reduction stage, anhydrite reacts with the reducing gas (CO) to produce oldhamite (CaS), and the oldhamite is stably present in the reduction ash. During the oxidation process, oldhamite is first transformed into CaSO4, and then CaSO4 is converted into CaO. Finally, CaO reacts with Al2O3 and SiO2 to produce gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) at 1100 °C. As the oxidation temperature rises to 1400 °C, gehlenite is transformed into the thermodynamically stable anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8). With the further progress of the reaction, anorthite will co-melt with iron-bearing minerals above 1500 °C. The ternary phase diagram of SiO2–Al2O3–CaO system proves that anorthite and gehlenite are the typical high-temperature calcium-bearing minerals when the mole fraction of SiO2 is higher than 0.6. Moreover, the gehlenite is converted to anorthite with the temperature rise, which is consistent with experimental results. This study provides a scientific basis for understanding the UCG reaction conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: underground coal gasification; high-calcium coal; calcium-bearing minerals; coal ash underground coal gasification; high-calcium coal; calcium-bearing minerals; coal ash
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.; Ma, W. Calcium-Bearing Minerals Transformation during Underground Coal Gasification. Minerals 2019, 9, 708.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop