Next Article in Journal
Subsidence Management System for Underground Mining
Previous Article in Journal
Deformation Processes, Textural Evolution and Weakening in Retrograde Serpentinites
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2018, 8(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060242

Mineralogical and Elemental Composition of Pectinatella magnifica and Its Statoblasts

1
Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
2
Headquarters for Innovative Society Academia Cooperation, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507, Japan
3
Department of Occupational Therapy, Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, 158 Mizuma, Kaizuka, Osaka Prefecture 597-0104, Japan
4
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
5
Kahokugata Lake Institute, Na 9-9, Kitachujo, Tsubata, Kahokugun, Ishikawa 929-0342, Japan
6
Medical Research Institute, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Kahokugun, Ishikawa 929-0342, Japan
7
Yamato Environment Analysis Co., Ltd, 273 Santanda, Kawakita, Nomi-gun, Ishikawa 923-1253, Japan
8
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3401 KB, uploaded 14 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Several massive colonies of Pectinatella magnifica have been observed during the summer almost every year since 1974 in agricultural reservoir ponds and lakes with dirty freshwater environments in Ishikawa, Japan, which has posed serious environmental problems on the shores of Hokuriku District. We collected Pectinatella magnifica during the summer at Kahokugata Lake and Makiyama agricultural reservoir pond in June and July 2016. However, scientific data for the statoblasts of Pectinatella magnifica are limited. Our results for scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses of Pectinatella magnifica indicated immobilization of the chemical elements that were involved in the mass during the summer. We also reported the characterization of an invasive species of bryozoan (Pectinatella magnifica) in lakes and ponds in Ishikawa, Japan, based on field observations in 2016. We studied the microstructure, mineralogy, chemical composition, and radioactivity associated with these organisms, using a combination of micro-techniques, SEM-EDS, associated with ICP-MS, and XRD. This study aims to illustrate the capability of Pectinatella magnifica to produce minerals within statoblasts and gelatinous material. Obtained results may indicate forming quartz, palygorskite, dolomite, bischofite, pyrolusite, and pyrite, associated with native sulfur and copper in the statoblast. The mass of gelatinous material contains talc and vermiculite as well as non-crystalline phase. The mechanism of biomineral formation has important implications for water–mineral–organism or microorganism interactions both in lower drainage basin systems, such as Kahokugata Lake, and upper water areas, such as Makiyama agricultural reservoir pond. Many types with variety of sizes and shapes of bryozoan (Pectinatella magnifica) were found in lakes and ponds in Japan. The biomineralization systems will be made available for use not only in researching bryozoans (Pectinatella magnifica), but also for environmental change systems from upstream to downstream of the lake. To date, there have been no reports on related electron microscopy observations, including the real-life occurrence of “bioremediation”. These observations could lead to simple methods of removing statoblasts of the invasive alien species Pectinatella magnifica from agricultural and reservoir environments, because there was limited microbial immobilization of the ions during the winter. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture reservoir; lake; bryozoa; Phylactolaemata; invasive alien species Pectinatella magnifica; statoblast; gelatinous material; SEM-EDS; ICP-MS; XRD; biomineralization; palygorskite; pyrite; dolomite agriculture reservoir; lake; bryozoa; Phylactolaemata; invasive alien species Pectinatella magnifica; statoblast; gelatinous material; SEM-EDS; ICP-MS; XRD; biomineralization; palygorskite; pyrite; dolomite
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tazaki, K.; Fukuyama, A.; Tazaki, F.; Okuno, M.; Hashida, Y.; Hashida, S.; Takehara, T.; Nakamura, K.; Kato, T. Mineralogical and Elemental Composition of Pectinatella magnifica and Its Statoblasts. Minerals 2018, 8, 242.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top