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Review

The Proterozoic Vazante Hypogene Zinc Silicate District, Minas Gerais, Brazil: A Review of the Ore System Applied to Mineral Exploration

1
Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
2
Geoscience Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo05508-010, Brazil
3
Nexa Resources, Vazante 38780-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
4
Department of Geoscience, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
5
Instituto de Geosciências, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70910-900, Federal District, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2018, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010022
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Mineralogy of Zn-Pb Nonsulfide Deposits)
The Proterozoic Vazante zinc silicate district in Minas Gerais, Brazil, hosts world-class hypogene willemite deposits in dolomitic rocks interbedded with siliciclastic rocks deposited in subtidal to supratidal environments. Willemite ore bodies are structurally controlled along regional NE-trending structures which are interpreted as being active during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny. The hydrothermal alteration is characterized by an early stage of Fe-dolomite, which replaced the host dolomitic rocks, followed by precipitation of minor sphalerite and then hematite and willemite. Elements commonly enriched in the zinc ore include As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Ge, In, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, U, V and W. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion and isotopic data indicates that mixing of S-poor metalliferous saline fluids with meteoric water favored the formation of willemite ore. Carbonaceous phyllites from the underlying thick siliciclastic sequence show evidence of early enrichment in zinc (and ore-related metals) and remobilization, respectively, prior to and during the Brasiliano orogenic event. This unit is interpreted as a possible source of ore-related elements. It is proposed that during the Brasiliano orogeny, hot (T > 170 °C) saline fluids (>15 wt % eq. NaCl) leached metals from siliciclastic source rocks and precipitated willemite ore in the overlying dolomitic sequence along structures that favored mixing with oxidizing meteoric water. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypogene zinc silicate; willemite; Proterozoic dolomitic basin; Vazante district; mineral exploration; ore system model hypogene zinc silicate; willemite; Proterozoic dolomitic basin; Vazante district; mineral exploration; ore system model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olivo, G.R.; Monteiro, L.V.S.; Baia, F.; Slezak, P.; Carvalho, I.; Fernandes, N.A.; Oliveira, G.D.; Botura Neto, B.; McGladrey, A.; Silva, A.M.; Moura, M.A.; Layton-Matthews, D. The Proterozoic Vazante Hypogene Zinc Silicate District, Minas Gerais, Brazil: A Review of the Ore System Applied to Mineral Exploration. Minerals 2018, 8, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010022

AMA Style

Olivo GR, Monteiro LVS, Baia F, Slezak P, Carvalho I, Fernandes NA, Oliveira GD, Botura Neto B, McGladrey A, Silva AM, Moura MA, Layton-Matthews D. The Proterozoic Vazante Hypogene Zinc Silicate District, Minas Gerais, Brazil: A Review of the Ore System Applied to Mineral Exploration. Minerals. 2018; 8(1):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olivo, Gema R., Lena V.S. Monteiro, Fernando Baia, Paul Slezak, Igor Carvalho, Neil A. Fernandes, Gustavo D. Oliveira, Basilio Botura Neto, Alexandra McGladrey, Adalene M. Silva, Márcia A. Moura, and Daniel Layton-Matthews. 2018. "The Proterozoic Vazante Hypogene Zinc Silicate District, Minas Gerais, Brazil: A Review of the Ore System Applied to Mineral Exploration" Minerals 8, no. 1: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8010022

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