This paper discusses the content, distribution, modes of occurrence, and enrichment mechanism of mineral matter and trace elements of an Early Permian coal from Songshao (Yunnan Province, China) by means of coal-petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques. The results show that the Songshao coal is characterized by high total and organic sulfur contents (3.61% and 3.87%, respectively). Lithium (170.39 μg/g) and Zr (184.55 μg/g) are significantly enriched in the Songshao coal, and, to a lesser extent, elements such as Hg, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Sr, Nb, Sn, Hf, V, and Cr are also enriched. In addition to Hg and Se that are enriched in the roof and floor strata of the coal seam, Li, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Y, Cd, and Sb are slightly enriched in these host rocks. Compared to the upper continental crust, rare earth elements and yttrium in the host rocks and coal samples are characterized by a light-REE enrichment type and have negative Eu, positive Ce and Gd anomalies. Major minerals in the samples of coal, roof, and floor are boehmite, clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, and mixed layer illite-smectite), pyrite, and anatase. Geochemical and mineralogical anomalies of the Songshao coal are attributed to hydrothermal fluids, seawater, and sediment-source rocks.
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