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Article

Mixed-Layer Illite-Smectite in Pennsylvanian-Aged Paleosols: Assessing Sources of Illitization in the Illinois Basin

1
Roy M. Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, P.O. Box 750395, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
2
Ocean and Coastal Management Branch, Office of Wetlands Oceans and Watersheds, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20004, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Javier Arostegi García
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020108
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smectite Illitization)
Mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) from a new set of Pennsylvanian-aged Illinois Basin underclays, identified as paleosols, are investigated to assess the impact of (1) regional diagenesis across the basin and (2) the extent to which ancient environments promoted illitization during episodes of soil formation. Interpretations from Reichweite Ordering and Δ° 2θ metrics applied to X-ray diffraction patterns suggest that most I-S in Illinois Basin paleosols are likely the product of burial diagenetic processes and not ancient soil formation processes. Acid leaching from abundant coal units and hydrothermal brines are likely diagenetic mechanisms that may have impacted I-S in Pennsylvanian paleosols. These findings also suggest that shallowly buried basins (<3 km) such as the Illinois Basin may still promote clay mineral alteration through illitization pathways if maximum burial occurred in the deep past and remained within the diagenetic window for extended periods of time. More importantly, since many pedogenic clay minerals may have been geochemically reset during illitization, sources of diagenetic alteration in the Illinois Basin should be better understood if Pennsylvanian paleosol minerals are to be utilized for paleoclimate reconstructions. View Full-Text
Keywords: clay mineralogy; Desmoinesian; diagenesis; Missourian, pedogenesis; Reichweite Ordering clay mineralogy; Desmoinesian; diagenesis; Missourian, pedogenesis; Reichweite Ordering
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MDPI and ACS Style

McIntosh, J.A.; Tabor, N.J.; Rosenau, N.A. Mixed-Layer Illite-Smectite in Pennsylvanian-Aged Paleosols: Assessing Sources of Illitization in the Illinois Basin. Minerals 2021, 11, 108. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020108

AMA Style

McIntosh JA, Tabor NJ, Rosenau NA. Mixed-Layer Illite-Smectite in Pennsylvanian-Aged Paleosols: Assessing Sources of Illitization in the Illinois Basin. Minerals. 2021; 11(2):108. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020108

Chicago/Turabian Style

McIntosh, Julia A., Neil J. Tabor, and Nicholas A. Rosenau 2021. "Mixed-Layer Illite-Smectite in Pennsylvanian-Aged Paleosols: Assessing Sources of Illitization in the Illinois Basin" Minerals 11, no. 2: 108. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020108

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