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Review

Biomineralization in Polychaete Annelids: A Review

Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Academic Editor: Alejandro B. Rodriguez-Navarro
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101151
Received: 18 August 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
Polychaete annelids are a very important group of calcifiers in the modern oceans. They can produce calcite, aragonite, and amorphous phosphates. Serpulids possess very diverse tube ultra-structures, several unique to them. Serpulid tubes are composed of aragonite or calcite or a mixture of both polymorphs. The serpulid tubes with complex oriented microstructures, such as lamello fibrillar, are exclusively calcitic, whereas tubes with prismatic structures can be composed either of calcite or aragonite. In serpulids, the calcareous opercula also have complex microstructures. Evolutionarily, calcitic serpulid taxa belong to one clade and the aragonitic taxa belong to another clade. Modern ocean acidification affects serpulid biomineralization. Serpulids are capable of biomineralization in extreme environments, such as the deepest part (hadal zone) of the ocean. The tubes of calcareous sabellids are aragonitic and have two layers, the inner irregular spherulitic prismatic layer and the outer spherulitic layer. The tube wall of cirratulids is composed of aragonitic lamellae with a spherulitic prismatic structure. In some other polychaetes, biominerals are formed in different parts of the animal body, such as chaetae or body shields, or occur within the body as granule-shaped or rod-shaped inclusions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomineralization; polychaete annelids; calcite; aragonite biomineralization; polychaete annelids; calcite; aragonite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vinn, O. Biomineralization in Polychaete Annelids: A Review. Minerals 2021, 11, 1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101151

AMA Style

Vinn O. Biomineralization in Polychaete Annelids: A Review. Minerals. 2021; 11(10):1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vinn, Olev. 2021. "Biomineralization in Polychaete Annelids: A Review" Minerals 11, no. 10: 1151. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101151

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