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Open AccessArticle

High-Grade Flake Graphite Deposits in Metamorphic Schist Belt, Central Finland—Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Graphite for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

1
Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Vuorimiehentie 5, 02151 Espoo, Finland
2
Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Neulaniemientie 5, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3
GTK-Mintec Laboratories, Tutkijankatu 1, 83500 Outokumpu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080680
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 25 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Minerals)
More than 40 m length of drill cores were collected from four boreholes drilled by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Outokumpu Oy in high-grade metamorphic rocks of Rautalampi and Käypysuo, Central Finland. The hosted rocks of the graphite mineralization were mica–quartz schist and biotite gneiss. The graphite-bearing rocks and final concentrated graphite powder were studied with petrographic microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray analysis (XRD and XRF). A majority of the studied graphite had a distinctly flakey (0.2–1 mm in length) or platy morphology with a well-ordered crystal lattice. Beneficiation studies were performed to produce high-purity graphite concentrate, where rod milling and froth flotation produced a final concentrate of 90% fixed carbon with recoveries between 67% and 83%. Particle size reduction was tested by a ball and an attritor mill. Graphite purification by alkaline roasting process with 35% NaOH at 250 °C and leached by 10% H2SO4 solution at room temperature could reach the graphite purity level of 99.4%. Our analysis suggested that purifying by multistage flotation processes, followed by alkaline roasting and acid leaching, is a considerable example to obtain high-grade graphite required for lithium-ion battery production. View Full-Text
Keywords: flake graphite; flotation; purification; acid leaching; alkaline roasting; battery minerals flake graphite; flotation; purification; acid leaching; alkaline roasting; battery minerals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Ani, T.; Leinonen, S.; Ahtola, T.; Salvador, D. High-Grade Flake Graphite Deposits in Metamorphic Schist Belt, Central Finland—Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Graphite for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications. Minerals 2020, 10, 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080680

AMA Style

Al-Ani T, Leinonen S, Ahtola T, Salvador D. High-Grade Flake Graphite Deposits in Metamorphic Schist Belt, Central Finland—Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Graphite for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications. Minerals. 2020; 10(8):680. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080680

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Ani, Thair; Leinonen, Seppo; Ahtola, Timo; Salvador, Dandara. 2020. "High-Grade Flake Graphite Deposits in Metamorphic Schist Belt, Central Finland—Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Graphite for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications" Minerals 10, no. 8: 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080680

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