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Open AccessArticle

Phosphorus Species in Deep-Sea Carbonate Deposits: Implications for Phosphorus Cycling in Cold Seep Environments

1
Laboratory of Deep-Sea Geology and Geochemistry, Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(7), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070645
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for biological communities in cold seeps. However, our knowledge on the source, species, and cycling of P in cold seep environments is limited. In this study, the concentration, species, and micro to nanometer scale distribution of P in seep carbonates were examined at three deep-sea cold seeps in the South China Sea and East China Sea. The Ca-P accounts for the largest proportion of P—followed by detrital-P, Fe-P, organic-P, and exchangeable-P. The distribution patterns of Ca-P, detrital-P, and organic-P in the seep carbonates differ from one another, as shown by elemental mapping with NanoSIMS and scanning electron microscopy. The covariation of P with Ca and C reveals that Ca-P co-precipitates with Ca-carbonate, which is linked to the process of sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane. Organic-P is also observed within biofilm-like organic carbon aggregates, revealing the microbial enrichment of P by fluids in the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane. P with a granulated morphology was identified as detrital-P derived from deep sediments. Most importantly, it is evident that Ca-P is positively correlated to the Fe content in all the seep carbonates. This indicates the likelihood that the dissolved P in cold-seep fluids is released primarily from Fe oxides through Fe-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep sediments. These processes associated with different species of P may have significant implications for P geochemical cycling and anaerobic oxidation of methane impelled by Fe and sulfate reduction in cold seep environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: seep carbonates; phosphorus species; phosphorus cycling; anaerobic oxidation of methane; cold seep environments seep carbonates; phosphorus species; phosphorus cycling; anaerobic oxidation of methane; cold seep environments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, J.; Du, M.; Li, J.; Xu, H.; Ta, K.; Chen, S.; Peng, X. Phosphorus Species in Deep-Sea Carbonate Deposits: Implications for Phosphorus Cycling in Cold Seep Environments. Minerals 2020, 10, 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070645

AMA Style

Zhou J, Du M, Li J, Xu H, Ta K, Chen S, Peng X. Phosphorus Species in Deep-Sea Carbonate Deposits: Implications for Phosphorus Cycling in Cold Seep Environments. Minerals. 2020; 10(7):645. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Junlie; Du, Mengran; Li, Jiwei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong. 2020. "Phosphorus Species in Deep-Sea Carbonate Deposits: Implications for Phosphorus Cycling in Cold Seep Environments" Minerals 10, no. 7: 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070645

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