The overpressure phenomenon is a widespread occurrence in unconventional shale gas reservoirs. Multiple overpressure shale gas fields were discovered in southern China, and there is no doubt that the gas production per well increases with increasing pressure coefficient (the ratio of the reservoir fluid pressure to the corresponding normal hydrostatic pressure). Thus, successful evaluation and production strategies of organic-rich shale deposits require an understanding of the evolution of the pressure coefficient and its controlling factors in these deposits. In this paper, drilling engineering data of a typical well were collected, and clay mineral tests and overburden diffusion coefficient experiments were conducted. Based on multiphysics simulations, this paper analyzes the overpressure characteristics and formation mechanisms of overpressure in the Longmaxi Formation shale, as well as its geological evolution and controlling factors. The results show that the large amount of shale gas is the cause of overpressure formation rather than disequilibrium compaction. The simulation results show that pressure coefficients of the typical well range from 0.84 to 1.49. The current pressure coefficient increases with increasing pressure coefficient after the last hydrocarbon generation. A large initial pressure coefficient (>1.9), short lifting time (<100 Ma) and small lifting amplitude (<4000 m) are favorable for the preservation of shale gas.
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