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Article

Quality of Peri-Urban Soil Developed from Ore-Bearing Carbonates: Heavy Metal Levels and Source Apportionment Assessed Using Pollution Indices

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Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Aleja Adama Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121140
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elemental Concentration and Pollution in Soil, Water, and Sediment)
Pollution indices are used to assess the influence of the bedrock as a natural source of heavy-metal (HM), and anthropogenic pollution from ore mining in soils developed from ore-bearing carbonates. The research was conducted in two areas differing in geological setting and type of land use in the Upper Silesia Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Physical properties such as pH, total sulfur, total carbon and total organic carbon values, as well as total Zn, Pb, and Cd contents (ICP-OES) for 39 topsoil samples were measured. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cdeg), pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), were used to determine the deterioration of topsoil due to HM pollution. The HM content exceeded geochemical background levels by 2.5–18.1 times. Very high to moderate topsoil contamination was determined. In a shallow historical mining zone, the relative influence of particular HM was found to be in the order of Pb > Cd > Zn and, in a deep mining zone, Zn > Cd > Pb. In the topsoil developed over shallow ore bodies, the HM content was mainly (60%) due to naturally occurring HM. In the area of deeply buried ore bodies, 90% of the HM load was related to anthropogenic sources. Zn, Pb and Cd vertical distributions and the patterns of topsoil pollution differ in terms of types of mined ores, mining methods and times elapsed since mining ceased. Pollution indices are an efficient tool for distinguishing soil anthropogenic pollution and geogenic contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollution indices; heavy metals; soil contamination; geogenic and anthropogenic origin pollution indices; heavy metals; soil contamination; geogenic and anthropogenic origin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sutkowska, K.; Teper, L.; Czech, T.; Hulok, T.; Olszak, M.; Zogala, J. Quality of Peri-Urban Soil Developed from Ore-Bearing Carbonates: Heavy Metal Levels and Source Apportionment Assessed Using Pollution Indices. Minerals 2020, 10, 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121140

AMA Style

Sutkowska K, Teper L, Czech T, Hulok T, Olszak M, Zogala J. Quality of Peri-Urban Soil Developed from Ore-Bearing Carbonates: Heavy Metal Levels and Source Apportionment Assessed Using Pollution Indices. Minerals. 2020; 10(12):1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sutkowska, Katarzyna, Leslaw Teper, Tomasz Czech, Tomasz Hulok, Michał Olszak, and Jan Zogala. 2020. "Quality of Peri-Urban Soil Developed from Ore-Bearing Carbonates: Heavy Metal Levels and Source Apportionment Assessed Using Pollution Indices" Minerals 10, no. 12: 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121140

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