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Article

Machine Learning-Based Pulse Wave Analysis for Early Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using In Silico Pulse Waves

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 7EU, UK
2
School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
World-Class Research Center, Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John H. Graham
Symmetry 2021, 13(5), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050804
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofluids in Medicine: Models, Computational Methods and Applications)
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is usually asymptomatic until rupture, which is associated with extremely high mortality. Consequently, the early detection of AAAs is of paramount importance in reducing mortality; however, most AAAs are detected by medical imaging only incidentally. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of machine learning-based pulse wave (PW) analysis for the early detection of AAAs using a database of in silico PWs. PWs in the large systemic arteries were simulated using one-dimensional blood flow modelling. A database of in silico PWs representative of subjects (aged 55, 65 and 75 years) with different AAA sizes was created by varying the AAA-related parameters with major impacts on PWs—identified by parameter sensitivity analysis—in an existing database of in silico PWs representative of subjects without AAAs. Then, a machine learning architecture for AAA detection was trained and tested using the new in silico PW database. The parameter sensitivity analysis revealed that the AAA maximum diameter and stiffness of the large systemic arteries were the dominant AAA-related biophysical properties considerably influencing the PWs. However, AAA detection by PW indexes was compromised by other non-AAA related cardiovascular parameters. The proposed machine learning model produced a sensitivity of 86.8 % and a specificity of 86.3 % in early detection of AAA from the photoplethysmogram PW signal measured in the digital artery with added random noise. The number of false positive and negative results increased with increasing age and decreasing AAA size, respectively. These findings suggest that machine learning-based PW analysis is a promising approach for AAA screening using PW signals acquired by wearable devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm; pulse wave analysis; one-dimensional modelling; in silico pulse waves; machine learning; recurrent neural network; long short-term memory abdominal aortic aneurysm; pulse wave analysis; one-dimensional modelling; in silico pulse waves; machine learning; recurrent neural network; long short-term memory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, T.; Jin, W.; Liang, F.; Alastruey, J. Machine Learning-Based Pulse Wave Analysis for Early Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using In Silico Pulse Waves. Symmetry 2021, 13, 804. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050804

AMA Style

Wang T, Jin W, Liang F, Alastruey J. Machine Learning-Based Pulse Wave Analysis for Early Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using In Silico Pulse Waves. Symmetry. 2021; 13(5):804. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050804

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Tianqi, Weiwei Jin, Fuyou Liang, and Jordi Alastruey. 2021. "Machine Learning-Based Pulse Wave Analysis for Early Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using In Silico Pulse Waves" Symmetry 13, no. 5: 804. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050804

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