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Symmetry 2019, 11(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020192

Association between New Urbanization and Sustainable Transportation: A Symmetrical Coupling Perspective

1
School of Economics and Management, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China
2
Department of International Logistics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 08563, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract

New urbanization (NU) and sustainable transportation (ST) are two important issues in urbanization, and their symmetrical coupling is an important factor for measuring the development of the urbanization process. To comprehensively explore the symmetrical coupling level of NU and ST in the urbanization process, this study proposed a coupling coordination degree (CCD) model and calculated the CCD values of China’s nine metropolises using panel data from 2007 to 2016. The results showed that: (1) From the perspective of each city’s development, the CCD values for Beijing, Tianjin and Chongqing showed a downward trend, and those for Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Wuhan exhibited a rising trend, while the CCD values for Zhengzhou and Xi’an fell initially and then rose gradually; (2) Based on the regions of the nine cities, the CCD values of the eastern cities and the central cities all demonstrated a growth trend, while those of the western cities were consistently lower than the central and eastern cities; however, the western cities experienced the highest growth rate. (3) Predictive results showed that the CCD levels of new urbanization and sustainable transportation in the eastern, central and western cities are projected to remain unchanged. Finally, it is expected that regionally balanced development will be realized in 2025. From the symmetrical coupling perspective, this study measured and predicted the coupling coordination level of NU and ST of nine metropolises undergoing the urbanization process, which provides a theoretical basis for effective decision-making for comprehensive and sustainable development of China’s urbanization. View Full-Text
Keywords: new urbanization; entropy method; coupling coordination; sustainable transportation new urbanization; entropy method; coupling coordination; sustainable transportation
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Ma, F.; Guo, Y.; Yuen, K.F.; Woo, S.; Shi, W. Association between New Urbanization and Sustainable Transportation: A Symmetrical Coupling Perspective. Symmetry 2019, 11, 192.

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