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Properties of Fluorescent Far-Red Anti-TNF Nanobodies

Center of Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Institute of Biology and Biomedicine, Lobachevsky State University, Nizhniy Novgorod 603950, Russia
Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, National Research Center for Hematology, Moscow 125167, Russia
Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhniy Novgorod 603005, Russia
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119334, Russia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibodies 2018, 7(4), 43;
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobody)
PDF [2314 KB, uploaded 17 December 2018]


Upregulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, TNF) has a significant role in the development of autoimmune diseases. The fluorescent antibodies binding TNF may be used for personalized therapy of TNF-dependent diseases as a tool to predict the response to anti-TNF treatment. We generated recombinant fluorescent proteins consisting of the anti-TNF module based on the variable heavy chain (VHH) of camelid antibodies fused with the far-red fluorescent protein Katushka (Kat). Two types of anti-TNF VHH were developed: one (BTN-Kat) that was bound both human or mouse TNF, but did not neutralize their activity, and a second (ITN-Kat) that was binding and neutralizing human TNF. BTN-Kat does not interfere with TNF biological functions and can be used for whole-body imaging. ITN-Kat can be evaluated in humanized mice or in cells isolated from humanized mice. It is able to block human TNF (hTNF) activities both in vitro and in vivo and may be considered as a prototype of a theranostic agent for autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: TNF; fluorescent; nanobodies; sensor; anti-cytokine therapy; autoimmune disease TNF; fluorescent; nanobodies; sensor; anti-cytokine therapy; autoimmune disease

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gorshkova, E.N.; Efimov, G.A.; Ermakova, K.D.; Vasilenko, E.A.; Yuzhakova, D.V.; Shirmanova, M.V.; Mokhonov, V.V.; Tillib, S.V.; Nedospasov, S.A.; Astrakhantseva, I.V. Properties of Fluorescent Far-Red Anti-TNF Nanobodies. Antibodies 2018, 7, 43.

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