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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Antibodies 2017, 6(4), 19;

Antagonist Anti-CD28 Therapeutics for the Treatment of Autoimmune Disorders

OSE Immunotherapeutics, 44200 Nantes, France
Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie (CRTI) UMR1064, INSERM, Université de Nantes, 44035 Nantes, France
Institut de Transplantation Urologie Néphrologie (ITUN), CHU Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France
Biomedical Primate Research Centre, 2288 GJ Rijswijk, The Netherlands
Department Neuroscience, University of Groningen, University Medical Center, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Av. Albert Einstein 627-701, 2-SS Bloco A, 05651-901 São Paulo, Brazil
Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Antibodies)
Full-Text   |   PDF [480 KB, uploaded 23 November 2017]   |  


The effector functions of T lymphocytes are responsible for most autoimmune disorders and act by directly damaging tissues or by indirectly promoting inflammation and antibody responses. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory T cell receptor molecules are the primary pharmacological targets that enable interference with immune-mediated diseases. Among these, selective CD28 antagonists have drawn special interest, since they tip the co-stimulation/co-inhibition balance towards efficiently inhibiting effector T cells while promoting suppression by pre-existing regulatory T-cells. After having demonstrated outstanding therapeutic efficacy in multiple models of autoimmunity, inflammation and transplantation, and safety in phase-I studies in humans, selective CD28 antagonists are currently in early clinical development for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we review the available proof of concept studies for CD28 antagonists in autoimmunity, with a special focus on the mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmunity; T cell costimulation; antibodies autoimmunity; T cell costimulation; antibodies

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Vanhove, B.; Poirier, N.; Fakhouri, F.; Laurent, L.; ’t Hart, B.; Papotto, P.H.; Rizzo, L.V.; Zaitsu, M.; Issa, F.; Wood, K.; Soulillou, J.-P.; Blancho, G. Antagonist Anti-CD28 Therapeutics for the Treatment of Autoimmune Disorders. Antibodies 2017, 6, 19.

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