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Addendum published on 27 August 2018, see Antibodies 2018, 7(3), 33.

Open AccessReview
Antibodies 2016, 5(2), 9;

Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Division Neurosciences, School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christiane Hampe
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auto-Antibody and Autoimmune Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [460 KB, uploaded 29 August 2018]


Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R), which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R), γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R) and dopamine receptor (DR) were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoantibody; neuronal surface antigens; neuropsychiatric disorders; effector mechanisms; immunoglobulin; blood brain barrier; NMDA-R; VGKC complex; AMPA-R; GABA-R; DR autoantibody; neuronal surface antigens; neuropsychiatric disorders; effector mechanisms; immunoglobulin; blood brain barrier; NMDA-R; VGKC complex; AMPA-R; GABA-R; DR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hoffmann, C.; Zong, S.; Mané-Damas, M.; Molenaar, P.; Losen, M.; Martinez-Martinez, P. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Antibodies 2016, 5, 9.

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