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B Cell Help by CD1d-Rectricted NKT Cells

Experimental Immunology Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano 20132, Italy
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Academic Editor: Alexander Dent
Antibodies 2015, 4(4), 279-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib4040279
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Follicular Helper T Cells)
B cell activation and antibody production against foreign antigens is a central step of host defense. This is achieved via highly regulated multi-phase processes that involve a variety of cells of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells specific for peptide antigens, which acquire professional follicular B cell helper functions, have been long recognized as key players in this process. Recent data, however, challenge this paradigm by showing the existence of other helper cell types. CD1d restricted NKT cells specific for lipid antigens are one such new player and can coopt bona fide follicular helper phenotypes. Their role in helping antigen-specific B cell response to protein antigens, as well as to the so called “help-less” antigens that cannot be recognized by T follicular helper cells, is being increasingly elucidated, highlighting their potential pathophysiological impact on the immune response, as well as on the design of improved vaccine formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: B cell response; NKT cells; T cell help; follicular helper cells; CD1; lipids B cell response; NKT cells; T cell help; follicular helper cells; CD1; lipids
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Clerici, L.; Casorati, G.; Dellabona, P. B Cell Help by CD1d-Rectricted NKT Cells. Antibodies 2015, 4, 279-294.

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