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Warming Effort and Energy Budget Difference of Various Human Land Use Intensity: Case Study of Beijing, China

1
Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Ministry of Education, Kaifeng 475004, China
2
Key Laboratory of Integrative Prevention of Air Pollution and Ecological Security of Henan Province, College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
3
School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
4
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(9), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090280
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Land–Climate Interactions)
Human land use intensity affects the surface energy balance by changing the biogeophysical parameters. This study used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data and surface energy balance algorithms to quantify changes in surface energy budgets corresponding to changes in land use in Beijing from 2000 to 2015. Land use was reclassified by considering land use intensity. The difference in the latent heat flux (LE) and net radiation (Rn) (LE−Rn) expressed the warming or cooling effect. The results showed that: (i) The increasing trend of net longwave radiation in Beijing offset the decreasing trend of net shortwave radiation. The Rn changed slightly, while the LE and LE−Rn showed a significant increase of 0.55 and 0.56 W/(m²∙year), respectively. The findings indicated that considering only radiative forcing, or even Rn, was not enough to measure the impacts of land use change on the energy budget. (ii) The order of Rn, LE, and LE−Rn values from high to low were natural and seminatural areas, cropland, mixed pixel areas, urban expansion areas, and old urban areas. Compared with natural and seminatural areas, the changing LE−Rn trend in the other four land use types decreased with the increase in human impact intensity, indicating that human activities weakened the positive change trend of LE−Rn and increased the warming effect. (iii) Although the temporal trend of LE increased in Beijing from 2000 to 2015, the effect of Rn on LE−Rn was greater than that of LE, especially in the four land use types affected by human activities. The results for surface temperature in various land use types confirmed this point. This study highlights the energy budget differences of various land use types affected by human activities. It makes an important contribution to understanding the urban heat island effect from a biogeophysical perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: land cover; latent heat flux; net radiation; human activities; urban heat island land cover; latent heat flux; net radiation; human activities; urban heat island
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, S.; Wang, K.; Yang, S.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, B.; Fu, Y.; Liu, X.; Run, Y.; Chubwa, O.G.; Zhao, G.; Dong, J.; Cui, Y. Warming Effort and Energy Budget Difference of Various Human Land Use Intensity: Case Study of Beijing, China. Land 2020, 9, 280.

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