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Open AccessArticle

Infiltration Capacity of Rain Gardens Using Full-Scale Test Method: Effect of Infiltration System on Groundwater Levels in Bergen, Norway

1
Department Resources & Environment, Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Torgarden, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department Research Centre for Built Environment NoorderRuimte, Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen, Zernikeplein 7, P.O. Box 30030 Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Deltares, Daltonlaan 600, 3584 BK Utrecht Postbus, 85467 3508 AL Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(12), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120520
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ecosystem Services)
The rain gardens at Bryggen in Bergen, Western Norway, is designed to collect, retain, and infiltrate surface rainfall runoff water, recharge the groundwater, and replenish soil moisture. The hydraulic infiltration capacity of the Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), here rain gardens, has been tested with small-scale and full-scale infiltration tests. Results show that infiltration capacity meets the requirement and is more than sufficient for infiltration in a cold climate. The results from small-scale test, 245–404 mm/h, shows lower infiltration rates than the full-scale infiltration test, with 510–1600 mm/h. As predicted, an immediate response of the full-scale infiltration test is shown on the groundwater monitoring in the wells located closest to the infiltration point (<30 m), with a ca. 2 days delayed response in the wells further away (75–100 m). Results show that there is sufficient capacity for a larger drainage area to be connected to the infiltration systems. This study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of infiltration systems such as how a rain garden interacts with local, urban water cycle, both in the hydrological and hydrogeological aspects. The results from this study show that infiltration systems help to protect and preserve the organic rich cultural layers below, as well as help with testing and evaluating of the efficiency, i.e., SuDS may have multiple functions, not only storm water retention. The functionality is tested with water volumes of 40 m3 (600 L/min for 2 h and 10 min), comparable to a flash flood, which give an evaluation of the infiltration capacity of the system. View Full-Text
Keywords: full-scale infiltration test; MPD infiltration test; boreholes; SuDS; NBS; flood resilience full-scale infiltration test; MPD infiltration test; boreholes; SuDS; NBS; flood resilience
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MDPI and ACS Style

Venvik, G.; Boogaard, F.C. Infiltration Capacity of Rain Gardens Using Full-Scale Test Method: Effect of Infiltration System on Groundwater Levels in Bergen, Norway. Land 2020, 9, 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120520

AMA Style

Venvik G, Boogaard FC. Infiltration Capacity of Rain Gardens Using Full-Scale Test Method: Effect of Infiltration System on Groundwater Levels in Bergen, Norway. Land. 2020; 9(12):520. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Venvik, Guri; Boogaard, Floris C. 2020. "Infiltration Capacity of Rain Gardens Using Full-Scale Test Method: Effect of Infiltration System on Groundwater Levels in Bergen, Norway" Land 9, no. 12: 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120520

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