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Applying Built-Up and Bare-Soil Indices from Landsat 8 to Cities in Dry Climates

1
Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
2
Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, Soran University, Soran 44008, Iraq
3
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
4
Department of Geography, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B. 2076, Nigeria
5
Department of Geography, Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu 861231, Nigeria
6
Department of Soil and Water Science, College of Agricultural, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimania 46001, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract

Arid and semi-arid regions have different spectral characteristics from other climatic regions. Therefore, appropriate remotely sensed indicators of land use and land cover types need to be defined for arid and semi-arid lands, as indices developed for other climatic regions may not give plausible results in arid and semi-arid regions. For instance, the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and normalized difference bareness index (NDBaI) are unable to distinguish between built-up areas and bare and dry soil that surrounds many cities in dry climates. This paper proposes the application of two newly developed indices, the dry built-up index (DBI) and dry bare-soil index (DBSI) to map built-up and bare areas in a dry climate from Landsat 8. The developed DBI and DBSI were applied to map urban areas and bare soil in the city of Erbil, Iraq. The results show an overall classification accuracy of 93% (κ = 0.86) and 92% (κ = 0.84) for DBI and DBSI, respectively. The results indicate the suitability of the proposed indices to discriminate between urban areas and bare soil in arid and semi-arid climates. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry built-up index (DBI); dry bare-soil index (DBSI); dry climates; land use land cover; Erbil; remote sensing; indices; Landsat 8 dry built-up index (DBI); dry bare-soil index (DBSI); dry climates; land use land cover; Erbil; remote sensing; indices; Landsat 8
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rasul, A.; Balzter, H.; Ibrahim, G.R.F.; Hameed, H.M.; Wheeler, J.; Adamu, B.; Ibrahim, S.; Najmaddin, P.M. Applying Built-Up and Bare-Soil Indices from Landsat 8 to Cities in Dry Climates. Land 2018, 7, 81.

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