2.1. Analytical Procedure
2.2. Investigation of Collapsed Incidents
3. Analysis of Collapsed Incident
3.1. Social Perspective
3.1.1. Transactions Involving Rural Land
3.1.2. Land-Policy Reform in Wenzhou
3.2. Chinese Land Use Policy
3.3. Technological Perspective
4. Suggestion for Sustainable Urban Planning
4.1. Land Policy Reform
4.2. Reasonable Monitoring Measures
- From social perspective, one of the key reasons triggering the building collapse incident was ascribed to the dual land use policy structure, which distinguishes between the city and rural areas of China. From the technological perspective, the building collapse incident site lies on the floodplain of Wenzhou City. The self-constructed residential buildings were founded on weak Wenzhou clay, and collapsed due to the combined effects of the extra vertical load resulting from unauthorized rooftop additions, differential settlement, and long-term deformation.
- The dichotomy between rural and urban areas in China appears to be reduced substantially after rural economic reform. The slow pace of land use reform progress promoted the frequency of building collapse incident. In the dual land use system, there is less or no supervision, for such construction activities in rural areas, which results in frequent rural residential building collapse incidents. Strict supervision may be required to prevent similar incident from reoccurring.
- For sustainable urban development, during the implementation of land-policy reform, the government should strengthen their management systems and ensure the effective implementation of land reform policies. The supervision capacity of government authorities to prevent unauthorized rooftop additions may need to be strengthened, reducing potential damage to occupants in similar collapse incidents. More attention should be paid to social problems associated with the personal safety issues affecting migrant workers. Mandatory regulations for any construction in China, especially for the private self-constructed work undertaken on house-building sites in rural areas should be on the “must-do” lists of government officials, thus minimizing the need for economic migration of workers.
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|Incident Date||Location||Type of Collapsed Building||Casualties||Constructed Date|
|24 Oct. 2016||Heze City, Shandong Province||Self-constructed residential building||6 deaths, 7 injured||Under construction|
|10 Oct. 2016||Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province||One two-storey and three six-storey residential buildings||22 deaths, 6 injured||1970s (two-storey rooftop addition)|
|26 Feb. 2016||Pingxiang City, Jiangxi Province||Six-storey residential building||1 death, 1 injured||1980s|
|27 Jul. 2015||Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province||Four-storey residential building||2 injured||/|
|14 Jun. 2015||Zunyi City, Guizhou Province||Seven-storey residential building||4 deaths, 3 injured||1995 (Four-storey rooftop addition)|
|27 Aug. 2014||Xinzheng City, Henan Province||Seven-storey residential building||2 deaths, 1 injured||1970s (Three-storey rooftop addition)|
|4 Apr. 2014||Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province||Five-storey residential building||1 death, 6 injured||1994|
|29 Aug. 2013||Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province||Two-storey residential building||1 death, 3 injured||1990s|
|27 Mar. 2013||Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province||Four-storey residential building||3 deaths, 1 injured||/|
|16 Dec. 2012||Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province||Two residential building||1 death, 1 injured||/|
|4 Aug. 2009||Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province||Two-storey residential building||17 deaths||1990s|
|27 June. 2009||Shanghai municipality||13-storey high-rise building||1 death||Under construction|
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