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Article

Environmental Threats over Amazonian Indigenous Lands

1
Earth System Science Center, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos 12227-010, Brazil
2
National Institute for Space Research (INPE), General Coordination of Earth Sciences (CGCT), São José dos Campos 12227-010, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Group on Earth Observations (GEO), CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cynthia Simmons and Robert T. Walker
Land 2021, 10(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030267
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 6 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Amazonia: Lessons for a Changing World)
This study investigates the main threats related to environmental degradation that affect Amazonian Indigenous Lands (ILs). Through a cluster analysis, we group ILs according to the set of common environmental threats that occur within and outside their limits. The results show that most of the 383 ILs are affected internally by a combination of different environmental threats, namely: deforestation, forest degradation, fires, mining, croplands, pastures, and roads. However, the ILs affected by multiple and relatively severe threats are mainly located in the arc of deforestation and the Roraima state. The threats related to forest loss (deforestation, forest degradation, and fires) are more intense in the ILs’ buffer zones than within, showing that ILs effectively promote environmental preservation. In the cluster analysis, we identified seven clusters that are characterized by common environmental threats within and around their limits, and, based on these results, we have outlined four environmental policy priorities to be strengthened and applied in Amazonian ILs: protecting ILs’ buffer zones; strengthening surveillance actions, and combating illegal deforestation, forest degradation, and mining activities in ILs; preventing and fighting fires; and removing invaders from all ILs in the Amazon. In this study, we warn that the threats presented make the Indigenous peoples in the Amazon more vulnerable. To guarantee indigenous peoples’ rights, illegal actions in these territories and their surroundings must be contained, and quickly. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indigenous rights; Indigenous lands; environmental degradation; policy; Amazon; cluster analysis Indigenous rights; Indigenous lands; environmental degradation; policy; Amazon; cluster analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rorato, A.C.; Picoli, M.C.A.; Verstegen, J.A.; Camara, G.; Silva Bezerra, F.G.; Escada, M.I.S. Environmental Threats over Amazonian Indigenous Lands. Land 2021, 10, 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030267

AMA Style

Rorato AC, Picoli MCA, Verstegen JA, Camara G, Silva Bezerra FG, Escada MIS. Environmental Threats over Amazonian Indigenous Lands. Land. 2021; 10(3):267. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030267

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rorato, Ana C., Michelle C.A. Picoli, Judith A. Verstegen, Gilberto Camara, Francisco G. Silva Bezerra, and Maria I.S. Escada 2021. "Environmental Threats over Amazonian Indigenous Lands" Land 10, no. 3: 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030267

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