Framing the Hierarchy of Cultural Tourism Attractiveness of Chinese Historic Districts under the Premise of Landscape Conservation
2. Literature Review
2.1. Chinese Historic Districts
2.2. Cultural Tourism Attractiveness
2.3. Hierarchical Framework of Historic Districts, Tourism Attractiveness, and Landscape Conservation
3. Research Design
3.1. In-Depth Interviews
3.2. Modified Delphi Method
3.3. Structured Observation
3.4. Scope of Research
4. Research Results
4.1. Redefinition of a Chinese Historic District and Cultural Tourism Attractiveness
4.1.1. Prototype Definition
4.1.2. Final Definition
4.2. A Hierarchical Framework for the Cultural Tourism Attractiveness of Chinese Historic Districts
4.2.1. The Prototype Framework
4.2.2. The Reasons for Amending the Framework
Cultural and Natural Environments
4.2.3. The Amended Framework
|a. The hardware environment allows historic districts to develop attractive cultural tourism and to emphasize denotation-based attractiveness.|
b. This aspect includes three criteria: morphology of landscape, tourism infrastructure, and image elements of the district.
Cultural and natural environment
|a. This aspect is the software environment where historic districts develop cultural tourism attractiveness and emphasize the connotation-based attractiveness.|
b. It includes two criteria: tangible and intangible cultural resources shaped in the context of traditional culture and those shaped in the context of innovative culture.
c. Tangible and intangible cultural resources can be divided into two types: those with legal identities related to cultural heritage conservation and those without such legal identities. Their connotation is the value in conservation, history, art, science, aesthetics, folklore, ethnography, anthropology, etc.
|Description of the Revised Framework Criteria||Description of the Revised Framework Criteria in the Case Study of|
the Dadaocheng Historic District
Landscape: Landscape of the district that can be directly captured by people in or outside the district. It contains the following two items [75,80,85].
Natural Landscape: A landscape composed of different forms of natural features, including geological landscape, water scenery, biological landscape, and the meteorological and climatological landscape.
|Trees down the street of Sec. 1, Dihua St.||This is a biological landscape|
Cultural Landscape: Scenic landscape formed under the long-term influence of human activities on the natural environment, including relics and ruins, buildings and facilities, tourism commodities, and cultural activities.
|Diversified commodities in the Art Yard.||This is a tourist commodity landscape|
Infrastructures: Tourism infrastructure refers not only to the material conditions created for the tourism industry, but also the public utilities and facilities of modern life shared by residents and tourists, which cover the following four segments [58,75,86,87].
Recreational and Shopping Facilities: the collective term for a wide range of tourism, leisure and shopping facilities, such as the scenic spot itself (including a viewing deck or viewing area), its auxiliary facilities, including sports, shopping, and entertainment facilities.
|Double 8—Rock Climbing Center.||This is a sports facility|
Accommodation and Catering Facilities refer to the various facilities that provide accommodation and catering for tourists, such as hotels, inns, camps, restaurants, breakfast shops, etc.
|The Carp—Specialty restaurant.||This is a catering facility|
Accessibility Facilities are the various transportation facilities that bring tourists to the district, such as vehicles, roads, ships, etc.
|Public bicycle rental system in front of the Dadaocheng Theatre.||This is an accessibility facility|
Amenity Facilities: a series of infrastructures to support life in the neighborhood and provide convenience for tourists, such as home facilities, public facilities, communication facilities, and security facilities.
|Visitor Information Center.||This is a public service facility|
Image elements of the district: Image elements of the district refer to the interesting and impressive elements located in the district that can be perceived by people after becoming familiar with the environment. These elements are recognizable and constitute an important part of the district space cognition. They cover the following five segments [75,81,82].
Paths refer to the identifiable, continuous and directional street network in a historic district. They are usually roads with defensive, life, sacrificial, leisure, fengshui and other image features or functions;
|The long main street—Dihua St.||This is an identifiable element|
Blocks: the contents in blocks establish different continuity features according to the different themes. Themes are usually related to the division of blocks, such as ancient place names, district functions, administrative management, topographical features, street nodes, architectural styles, residents’ ancestral homes, and marriage relations.
|The area with most Chinese medicine shops in Dihua St.||This is a characteristic element of specialist product sales|
Nodes refer to the junctions of traffic routes or the gathering points for district activities. A node is usually a public social or cultural space, such as the space formed by intersecting roads. It can also be a gathering point or an area enclosed by buildings and their auxiliary spaces, such as parks, rings, temples and ancestral halls as well as their auxiliary spaces, and famous ancient trees and their auxiliary spaces.
|Traffic node between Dihua St. and Minsheng West Road.||This is a junction node of traffic routes|
Landmarks are buildings or natural objects in a district with high popularity which are highly representative or commemorative, such as temples, ruins, monuments, and department stores.
|Reservist Counseling Centre of the Datong District.||This is a representative architectural element|
Edges refer to the boundary that separates the district from the surroundings. Edges are normally visible and continuous; they can be roads or boundary signs, or mountains, waters, bridges, walls, plants, archways, and temples.
|Taipei Bridge.||It is a boundary element.|
Tangible cultural resources:
Tangible cultural resources: the values, characteristics or significance demonstrated by the tangible cultural resources in the district, which cover the following four segments [76,77,83,84].
Artifacts: human-made artifacts other than buildings and spaces, such as inscriptions, sculptures, books, calligraphy, paintings, and items that are connected to celebrities.
|Inscriptions in the Xia-Hai City God Temple.||This is a stone inscription that demonstrates cultural connotations|
Buildings: a single building or a group of buildings, such as architectural patterns, styles, materials, and buildings that are connected to celebrities.
|Ten Joined Townhouses.||This is a group of buildings that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Cultural and Social Fields are fields (including those existing in the past, those that still exist today, and those newly emerging) that provide spaces for regular or irregular cultural or social activities, such as cultural and social spaces that carry various intangible cultural resources, archaeological sites, and fields that are connected to celebrities.
|The former site of Yung-le-tso the former theater.||This is a cultural field group that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Landscape Features refers to connotations demonstrated by natural or cultural landscapes, such as natural areas, special topography, geological phenomena, rare minerals, plants, animals, and landscape formed under the long-term interactions between humans and nature.
|Qilou passages in Dihua St.||This is a cultural landscape that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Intangible cultural resources: Intangible cultural resources refers to the values, characteristics or significance demonstrated by the intangible cultural resources in a district, which are usually behaviors or manifestations of special or important significance to the inheritance of traditional culture or the fusion of old and new cultures in the district. The activity-related content can be divided into the following types: non-governmental, governmental, and jointly run. Intangible cultural resources include six segments as follows
Narratives and memories refer to the stories told by residents in the district. The types of stories include historic tales, historic events, myths, legends, and fables.
|Stories about the musician Li Lim-Chhiu.||It is a historic stories that demonstrates the cultural connotations.|
Cultural activities reference the various performances or folklore activities held to pass on or illustrate the district culture, such as dramas, rituals, and theme performances.
|God Folk Festival.||This is a folk activity that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Industrial culture activities reference the various industrial activities held to pass on or illustrate industries in the district, such as traditional industrial shows, traditional industry innovation competitions, industrial experience activities, and cultural and creative product activities.
|Harvest Festival activities.||An industrial culture activity for inheritance and innovation that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Characteristic cultural manifestations refer to the various concrete or abstract cultural manifestations that have been passed on by residents from generation to generation, are generally accepted by residents, or are closely related to the life of residents, such as language, writing, food, music, dance, technology, knowledge, management, festivals, local beliefs, lifestyle, and social networks.
|This is traditional craftsmanship that demonstrates cultural connotations.|
Residents’ images refer to the collective image of residents when participating in political, economic, and cultural activities, such as district identity, service awareness, cultural conservation awareness, environmental protection awareness, spiritual features, friendliness, social inclusiveness, residents’ consensus, social participation, and social values.
|The pride of residents.||This demonstrates a district identity with cultural connotations.|
Service refers to the various services to address the parallel needs of residents and tourists, such as a tourism information service, tourism public security service, tourism social service functions, a tourism environment service, tourism elements assurance service, tourism commercial service, and domestic services for residents.
|This demonstrates the cultural connotation of a tourism commercial service|
4.2.4. The Modified Delphi Decision-Making Results
5. Case Study
6. Conclusions and Suggestions
- Explore the interactions among the criteria of this hierarchical framework in specific Chinese historic districts, find out the source of the interactions, and plot a causal diagram;
- Analyze the importance and performance of each criterion of this hierarchical framework in specific Chinese historic districts, and plot an Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) diagram.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Term||Definition (Reference + Personal Amendment)||Reference|
|Chinese Historic District||Places (1) where a certain number of Chinese congregate and reside, (2) which have particularly diversified cultural relics approved and acknowledged by the authority, (3) where historic buildings are clustered, and (4) which verifiably show that traditional patterns and historic styles are integral.|||
|Cultural Tourism Attractiveness||A force of attraction that lures tourists to cultural attractions to satisfy their cultural needs.||[48,53,54]|
|Chinese Historic District||Places in urban or rural areas where (1) Chinese cultural characteristics are distinctive; (2) the historic artifacts preserved are particularly diversified; (3) the old buildings are clustered; (4) the traditional patterns and historic styles are integral and verifiably manifested; and (5) a group of buildings is worthy of conservation and revitalization.||[5,39,40,45,46,47]|
|An action whereby a tourism destination with historic spaces and modern functions leverages the cultural tourism resources inherent in the physical environment, the cultural environment, and the natural environment to attract tourists and stimulate their cultural needs.||[18,48,49,50,53,54,55,56]|
|Physical environment||Nature and natural resources.|||
|Human environment||Movable resources.|||
|Various traditional cultural manifestations.|||
|Related physical items and places.|||
|Marketing strategy||Product strategy.||[78,79]|
|Criteria||Quartile Deviation (QD)||Average||Median||Mode||Maximum||Minimum|
|A1 Morphology of landscape||0.5||5.65||6||6||6||5|
|A2 Tourism infrastructure||0.5||5.29||5||5||6||4|
|A3 Image elements of the district||0.5||5.41||6||6||6||3|
|B1 Tangible culture resources||0.5||5.71||6||6||6||5|
|B2 Intangible culture resources||0.5||5.59||6||6||6||4|
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Luo, H.; Chiou, B.-S. Framing the Hierarchy of Cultural Tourism Attractiveness of Chinese Historic Districts under the Premise of Landscape Conservation. Land 2021, 10, 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020216
Luo H, Chiou B-S. Framing the Hierarchy of Cultural Tourism Attractiveness of Chinese Historic Districts under the Premise of Landscape Conservation. Land. 2021; 10(2):216. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020216Chicago/Turabian Style
Luo, Haifeng, and Bor-Shuenn Chiou. 2021. "Framing the Hierarchy of Cultural Tourism Attractiveness of Chinese Historic Districts under the Premise of Landscape Conservation" Land 10, no. 2: 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020216