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Effectiveness of ABC Waters Design Features for Runoff Quantity Control in Urban Singapore
Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore

1
PUB, Singapore’s national water agency, 40 Scotts Road, Environment Building, #07-01, Singapore 228231, Singapore
2
Water Science and Engineering Department, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2017, 9(8), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080627
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency) recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to 0.2 ha. The use of Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters design features are encouraged to attain peak runoff reduction. Hence the paper focuses on (i) determining the actual hydrological response regime of Singapore using the relationship between runoff coefficient (C), land use and slope; and (ii) investigating the effectiveness of ABC Waters design features in delaying and reducing peak runoff using a modelling approach. Based on a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) model and using elevation, land use and soil data as inputs, the peak C-values were obtained for 50 m × 50 m grid cells. The results show that for the same land use, the one with steeper slope resulted in a higher runoff coefficient. Simulations were carried out in two study areas, Green Walk District and Tengah Subcatchment, where ABC Waters design features (such as porous pavements, green roofs, rain gardens) and detention tanks were incorporated to reduce C-values. Results showed that peak C-values can be reduced to less than 0.55 after increasing the green areas and constructing detention facilities. Reduction in peak discharge (22% to 63%) and a delay in peak discharge by up to 30 min were also observed. Hence, it is recommended to consider the relationship between slope and land use while determining runoff coefficients; and to incorporate ABC Waters design features in urban design to reduce the peak flow and runoff coefficient (C). View Full-Text
Keywords: ABC Waters; LID; SuDS; WSUD; water quantity control; runoff control; numerical simulation; sustainable storm water management ABC Waters; LID; SuDS; WSUD; water quantity control; runoff control; numerical simulation; sustainable storm water management
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Goh, X.P.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Pathirana, A. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore. Water 2017, 9, 627.

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