Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore
2.1. Hydrological Response Regime Map for Singapore
2.2. Effectiveness of ABC Features in Reducing C Value
Conflicts of Interest
- Dietz, M.E. Low impact development practices: A review of current research and recommendations for future directions. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2007, 186, 351–363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chinh, D.; Dung, N.; Gain, A.; Kreibich, H. Flood loss models and risk analysis for private households in Can Tho City, Vietnam. Water 2017, 9, 313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Radhakrishnan, M.; Pathirana, A.; Ashley, R.; Zevenbergen, C. Structuring climate adaptation through multiple perspectives: Framework and case study on flood risk management. Water 2017, 9, 129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Environment Agency. Urban Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe: Transforming Cities in a Changing Climate; European Environment Agency: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016; p. 135. [Google Scholar]
- City of Melbourne. Resilient Melbourne; City of Melbourne: Melbourne, Australian, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- HM Government. National Flood Resilience Review. Crown Copyright: 2016. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-flood-resilience-review (accessed on 16 April 2017).
- Zhang, S.X.; Babovic, V. A real options approach to the design and architecture of water supply systems using innovative water technologies under uncertainty. J. Hydroinform. 2012, 14, 13–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- PUB Singapore’s National Water Agency. Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage (Sixth Edition-December 2011, Addendum No. 1 Junuary 2013); Public Utilties Board: Singapore, 7 June 2017. Available online: https://www.pub.gov.sg/Documents/COP_Final.pdf (accessed on 7 June 2017).
- PUB Singapore’s National Water Agency. Active Beautiful Clean Waters Design Guidelines; Board, P.U., Ed.; Public Utilties Board: Singapore, 2014.
- Fletcher, T.D.; Shuster, W.; Hunt, W.F.; Ashley, R.; Butler, D.; Arthur, S.; Trowsdale, S.; Barraud, S.; Semadeni-Davies, A.; Bertrand-Krajewski, J.-L.; et al. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more—The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage. Urban Water J. 2015, 12, 525–542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pathirana, A.; Denekew, H.B.; Veerbeek, W.; Zevenbergen, C.; Banda, A.T. Impact of urban growth-driven landuse change on microclimate and extreme precipitation—A sensitivity study. Atmos. Res. 2014, 138, 59–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- PUB Singapore’s national water agency. Report on Key Conclusions and Recommendations of the Expert Panel on Drainage Design and Flood Protection Measures; PUB Singapore’s National Water Agency, Ed.; PUB Singapore’s National Water Agency: Singapore, 2012.
- Urban Drainage and Flood Control District. Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual; Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, Ed.; Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD): Denver, CO, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Nicklow, J.W.; Boulos, P.F.; Muleta, M.K. Comprehensive Urban Hydrologic Modeling Handbook for Engineers and Planners; MWH Soft, Inc. Publ.: Pasadena, CA, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Voogt, J.A. Urban heat islands: Hotter cities. Action Biosci. 2004. Available online: http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/voogt.html?newwindow=true (accessed on 12 August 2017).
- United States Department of Agriculture. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds TR-55. In US Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release; Conservation Engineering Division, Natural Resource Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture: Washigton, DC, USA, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- National Environment Agency. Weather Statistics, 2014. Available online: http://www.nea.gov.sg/weather-climate/climate/historical-daily-records (accessed on 2 October 2014).
- Environmental Protection Agency, United States. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). 2014. Available online: http://www2.epa.gov/water-research/storm-water-management-model-swmm (accessed on 3 March 2015).
- Rossman, L.A.; Huber, W.C. Stormwater Management model—Reference Manual—Volume I Hydrology (Revised); USEPA Agency, Ed.; USEPA: Cincinnati, OH, USA, 2016.
- Housing and Development Board of Singapore. HDB Homes of the Future: Green & Sustainable. 2014. Available online: http://www20.hdb.gov.sg/fi10/fi10296p.nsf/PressReleases/18994D97FB6D475F48257D4E0023DA3F?OpenDocument (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore. Master Plan—Eastern Region. 2014. Available online: https://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Regional-highlights/east-region/east-region (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Housing and Development Board of Singapore. Unveiling the Masterplan for Tengah: At Home with Nature. 2016. Available online: http://www.hdb.gov.sg/cs/infoweb/press-releases/corporate-pr-unveiling-the-masterplan-for-tengah-08092016 (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Liu, Y.B.; Gebremeskel, S.; de Smedt, F.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L. Predicting storm runoff from different land-use classes using a geographical information system-based distributed model. Hydrol. Process. 2006, 20, 533–548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Housing and Development Board of Singapore. HDB Greenprint Brings Sustainable & Green Living to 5800 Households in Teck Ghee. 2015. Available online: http://www.hdb.gov.sg/cs/infoweb/press-releases/hdb-greenprint-brings-sustainable-and-green-living (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Housing and Development Board of Singapore. Greenery. Undated. Available online: http://www.hdb.gov.sg/cs/infoweb/about-us/our-role/smart-and-sustainable-living/hdb-greenprint/greenery (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Housing and Development Board of Singapore. Yuhua Residents First to Benefit from Sustainable Features with Completion of HDB Greenprint. 2015. Available online: http://www.hdb.gov.sg/cs/infoweb/press-release/yuhua-residents-first-to-benefit-from-sustainable-features (accessed on 30 June 2017).
- Greenroofs.com. Casa Clementi. 2012. Available online: http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=1711 (accessed on 4 July 2017).
- Yau, W.K. Effectiveness of ABC Waters Design Features for Runoff Quantity Control in Urban Singapore, in Water Science and Engineering; IHE Delft Institute for Water Education: Delft, The Netherlands, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Dickinson, R. Porous Pavement LID Control In #SWMM5, #InfoSWMM Sustain. Blogs about SWMM 5, InfoSWMM, InfoSewer, Stormwater Management Model and (Future) SWMM. Available online: https://swmm5.org/2017/02/01/porous-pavement-lid-control-in-swmm5-infoswmm-sustain/ (accessed on 4 July 2017).
- Poullain, J. Estimating Storm Water Runoff; PDH Centre: Fairfax, VA, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Hong Kong Drainage Services Department. Stormwater Drainage Manual—Planning Design and Management; Drainage Services Department, Ed.; Drainage Services Department, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Hong Kong, China, 2013.
- HR Wallingford. Greenfield Runoff Rates for Developments—Use of 2D Modelling and the Influence of Site Gradient; HR Wallingford: Wallingford, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
|Characteristics of Catchment When Fully Developed||Runoff Coefficient (C)|
|Roads, highways, airport runways, paved areas||1.00|
|Urban areas fully and closely built up||0.90|
|Residential/industrial areas densely built up||0.80|
|Residential/industrial areas not densely built up||0.65|
|Rural areas with fish ponds and vegetable gardens||0.45|
|Road||Port/Airport||Business||Residential||Beach||Agriculture||Reserve Site/Special Use||Parks/Open Spaces||Cemetery|
|Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C||Slope %||C|
|0 to 0.5||0.92||0 to 0.5||0.91||0 to 0.5||0.90||0 to 0.5||0.75||0 to 0.5||0.58||0 to 0.5||0.48||0 to 0.5||0.40||0 to 0.5||0.21||0 to 0.5||0.20|
|0.5 to 1||0.95||0.5 to 1||0.94||0.5 to 1||0.93||0.5 to 1||0.79||0.5 to 1||0.62||0.5 to 1||0.51||0.5 to 1||0.45||0.5 to 1||0.25||0.5 to 1||0.23|
|1 to 2||0.97||1 to 1.5||0.96||1 to 1.5||0.95||1 to 1.5||0.82||1 to 1.5||0.63||1 to 1.5||0.53||1 to 1.5||0.47||1 to 1.5||0.27||1 to 1.5||0.26|
|2 to 3.5||0.98||1.5 to 2.5||0.97||1.5 to 2.5||0.96||1.5 to 2||0.84||1.5 to 2||0.65||1.5 to 2||0.54||1.5 to 2||0.49||1.5 to 2||0.29||1.5 to 2||0.27|
|3.5 to 8||0.99||2.5 to 4.5||0.98||2.5 to 4||0.97||2 to 2.5||0.86||2 to 2.5||0.66||2 to 2.5||0.55||2 to 2.5||0.50||2 to 2.5||0.30||2 to 2.5||0.29|
|8 to 100||1.00||4.5 to 10||0.99||4 to 7||0.98||2.5 to 3||0.87||2.5 to 3.5||0.68||2.5 to 3||0.56||2.5 to 3||0.51||2.5 to 3||0.31||2.5 to 3||0.30|
|10 to 100||1||7 to 35||0.99||3 to 3.5||0.88||3.5 to 4||0.69||3 to 3.5||0.57||3 to 3.5||0.52||3 to 3.5||0.32||3 to 4||0.31|
|35 to 100||1||3.5 to 4.5||0.89||4 to 5||0.70||3.5 to 4||0.58||3.5 to 4||0.53||3.5 to 4.5||0.33||4 to 4.5||0.32|
|4.5 to 5||0.90||5 to 6||0.71||4 to 5||0.59||4 to 5||0.54||4.5 to 5||0.34||4.5 to 5||0.33|
|5 to 7||0.91||6 to 7||0.72||5 to 6||0.60||5 to 6||0.55||5 to 6||0.36||5 to 6||0.34|
|7 to 9||0.92||7 to 10||0.73||6 to 7||0.61||6 to 7||0.56||6 to 7||0.37||6 to 7||0.35|
|9 to 10||0.93||10 to 20||0.75||7 to 9||0.62||7 to 10||0.57||7 to 8||0.38||7 to 8||0.36|
|10 to 15||0.94||20 to 30||0.76||9 to 10||0.63||10 to 15||0.60||8 to 10||0.39||8 to 9||0.37|
|15 to 25||0.95||30 to 50||0.77||10 to 15||0.65||15 to 20||0.62||10 to 15||0.42||9 to 10||0.38|
|25 to 50||0.96||50 to 100||0.78||15 to 25||0.66||20 to 25||0.63||15 to 20||0.44||10 to 15||0.41|
|50 to 100||0.97||25 to 40||0.67||25 to 30||0.64||20 to 25||0.45||15 to 20||0.42|
|40 to 50||0.68||30 to 35||0.65||25 to 35||0.46||20 to 25||0.44|
|50 to 100||0.69||35 to 40||0.66||35 to 40||0.47||25 to 35||0.45|
|40 to 50||0.67||40 to 50||0.48||35 to 40||0.46|
|50 to 100||0.70||50 to 100||0.49||40 to 50||0.47|
|50 to 100||0.49|
|Subcatchment ID||Area of Subcatchment (ha)||Initial C Value||Area of Green Roof (% Area of Subcatchment)||% Reduction in C Values (Green Roofs)||Area of Rain Gardens (% Area of Subcatchment)||% Reduction in C Values (Rain Gardens)||Area of Porous Pavement (% Area of Subcatchment)||% Reduction in C Values (Porous Pavements)||Area of Detention Tanks (% Area of Subcatchment)||% Reduction in C Values (Detention Tanks)|
|GW3||6.9||0.60||10.1||0||0||0||0||0||2.9 (1200 m3)||8.3|
|C1||1.01||0.9||39.6||8.9||5||8.9||3||3.7||2.8 (190 m3)||38.9|
|C2||3||0.9||13.3||17.8||10||10.8||5||4.5||2.7 (560 m3)||11.1|
|C4||0.88||0.9||45.5||7.8||2.8||4.8||2.3||5.1||3.8 (165 m3)||32|
|C5||1.52||0.9||13.2||0||13.2||13.8||3.3||3.7||16.5 (175 m3) (240 m3—water roof)||30.8|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Goh, X.P.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Pathirana, A. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore. Water 2017, 9, 627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080627
Goh XP, Radhakrishnan M, Zevenbergen C, Pathirana A. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore. Water. 2017; 9(8):627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080627Chicago/Turabian Style
Goh, Xue Ping, Mohanasundar Radhakrishnan, Chris Zevenbergen, and Assela Pathirana. 2017. "Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore" Water 9, no. 8: 627. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080627