In this paper, the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the bio-surfactant rhamnolipid are mixed to achieve micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, and the associated aniline removal efficiency is investigated. The impacts of five factors, including the mixing ratio of the SDS concentration to the rhamnolipid concentration, the pH, the salinity, the operating pressure, and the aniline concentration in the feed solution, on the aniline rejection and the membrane permeation flux are explored. The aniline rejection mechanism of the rhamnolipid mixture surfactant is analyzed. This study shows that the effect of these factors on the aniline rejection is in the order of pH > mixing ratio > operating pressure > aniline concentration > salinity; the factors that affect the membrane permeation flux are in the order of mixing ratio > operating pressure > salinity > pH > aniline concentration. Under the optimal test conditions (i.e., SDS:rhamnolipid = 8:2, pH = 5, salinity = 250 mmol/L, operating pressure = 3.5 bar, aniline concentration = 1.5 mM), the verification test results showed an aniline rejection of 78.36%.
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