Next Article in Journal
Thermal and Physical Investigations into Lake Deepening Processes on Spillway Lake, Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal
Next Article in Special Issue
The Critical Depth of Freeze-Thaw Soil under Different Types of Snow Cover
Previous Article in Journal
Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Mombasa: Scenario Development with Image Classification and Water Resources Simulation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coupled Infiltration and Kinematic-Wave Runoff Simulation in Slopes: Implications for Slope Stability
Open AccessArticle

Upscaling Stem to Community-Level Transpiration for Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla

Inner Mongolia Water Resource Protection and Utilization Key Laboratory, College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
Hydraulics/Water Resources Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0241, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luc Lambs
Water 2017, 9(5), 361;
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
PDF [1929 KB, uploaded 22 May 2017]


The information on transpiration is vital for sustaining fragile ecosystem in arid/semiarid environment, including the Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) located in northeast China. However, such information is scarce in existing literature. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure sap flow of selected individual stems of two sand-fixing plants, namely Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla, in HSL; and (2) upscale the measured stem-level sap flow for estimating the community-level transpiration. The measurements were done from 1 May to 30 September 2015 (i.e., during the growing season). The upscaling function was developed to have one dependent variable, namely sap flow rate, and two independent variables, namely stem cross-sectional area of Salix gordejevii and leaf area of Caragana microphylla. The results indicated that during the growing season, the total actual transpiration of the Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla communities was found to be 287 ± 31 and 197 ± 24 mm, respectively, implying that the Salix gordejevii community might consume 1.5 times more water than the Caragana microphylla community. For this same growing season, based on the Penman–Monteith equation, the total actual evapotranspiration for these two communities was estimated to be 323 and 229 mm, respectively. The daily transpiration from the upscaling function was well correlated with the daily evapotranspiration by the Penman–Monteith equation (coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.67), indicating the applicability of this upscaling function, a useful tool for managing and restoring sand-fixing vegetations. View Full-Text
Keywords: desertification; sand dune; sap flow; stem cross-sectional area; leaf area desertification; sand dune; sap flow; stem cross-sectional area; leaf area

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, L.; Lv, Y.; Yan, X.; Liu, T.; Wang, X. Upscaling Stem to Community-Level Transpiration for Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla. Water 2017, 9, 361.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top