Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation
2.1. SWAT Model Description
2.2. Study Area
2.3. Approach for Flood Frequency Assessment
3. SWAT Modeling
3.1. Input Data and Model Preparation
3.2. Model Calibration and Validation
3.3. Model Results
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Flood Frequency Analysis of the Observed and Simulated Daily Inflows
4.2. Influence of Regulated Flow by the Dam on Daily Flood Frequency
4.3. Influence of Regulated Flow by the Dam on the Hourly Flood Frequency
- A comparison of the simulated daily peak flows with the observed data indicated that the use of the SWAT model was suitable for estimating the flood frequency. A close correlation (R2 = 0.903, RMSE = 0.187 m3/s) between the daily flood estimates for the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years, computed from the observed and simulated daily inflows to the Paldang Dam, was achieved under the current condition, i.e., with the Soyanggang and Chungju dams in place.
- The effect of the Chungju Dam on the flood frequency at the Paldang Dam was found to be greater that of the Soyanggang Dam during the simulation periods. The removal of the Soyanggang Dam (Scenario 1; regulation by the Chungju Dam only) caused an increase in the daily flood peaks by 15.9%, while the removal of the Chungju Dam (Scenario 2; regulation by the Soyanggang Dam only) increased the daily flood peaks by 28.6%.
- The peak flow increment ratio by removing both Soyanggang and Chungju dams (Scenario 3) was slightly lower than the summation of the respective peak flow increment ratios from Scenarios 1 and 2.
- To overcome the inability of SWAT to reproduce sharp events within hours, a procedure incorporating Sangal’s method for estimating instantaneous peak flow from the daily flow into the SWAT simulation has been proposed in the present work. As a result of the flood frequency analysis on an hourly basis using this procedure, the errors in the flood estimates were less than 8%, which leads to acceptable accuracy.
- The increased average percentage of the hourly flood estimates for the three scenarios, relative to the current state, were 16.1%, 30.1%, and 44.1%, for the removals of the Soyanggang, Chungju, and both dams, respectively. These increased percentages were a little higher than those for the estimated daily flood frequencies.
- The developed approach allows for a better understanding of flood frequency alterations during the post-dam period, which will improve the applicability of continuous simulation models for the analysis of flood frequency.
Conflicts of Interest
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|ESCO||Soil evaporation compensation factor||0.65|
|CN2||CN value with the AMC-II||+20%|
|ADJF||Adjustment factor for lateral flow (default = 1)||2|
|SLSUBBSN||Average slope length for subbasin (m)||Max (10, default)|
|GW_DELAY||Groundwater delay (days)||150|
|Year||Rainfall (mm)||Runoff (mm)||Runoff Ratio (%)||Determination Coefficient (R2)|
|Scenarios||Return Periods (Years)|
|Scenarios||Return Periods (Years)|
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Lee, J.E.; Heo, J.-H.; Lee, J.; Kim, N.W. Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation. Water 2017, 9, 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040264
Lee JE, Heo J-H, Lee J, Kim NW. Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation. Water. 2017; 9(4):264. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040264Chicago/Turabian Style
Lee, Jeong Eun, Jun-Haeng Heo, Jeongwoo Lee, and Nam Won Kim. 2017. "Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation" Water 9, no. 4: 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040264