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Water 2017, 9(12), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120922

Precipitation Trends over Slovakia in the Period 1981–2013

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice 042 00, Slovakia
2
Department of Natural Environment, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen 960 53, Slovakia
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1049-001, Portugal
4
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice 042 00, Slovakia
5
Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Geographical Information Systems, Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies, Technical University of Košice, Košice 042 00, Slovakia
6
Branch office Košice, Slovakian Hydrometeorological Institute, Košice 042 00, Slovakia, [email protected]
7
Institute of Municipal Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Technology in Brno, AdMaS centre, Brno 601 09, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract

The objective of this paper was to analyze the temporal and spatial trends in annual and seasonal precipitation in Slovakia utilizing 487 gauging station data collected statewide in the period from 1981 to 2013. The nonparametric Mann–Kendall (MK) statistical test, which has been widely used to assess the significance of trends in hydrological time series, was applied to detect the significant trends. The Theil–Sen (TS) approach was applied to quantify the trend magnitude, and the Sequential Mann–Kendall (SQMK) test was used to detect abrupt temporal trend shifts. In general, precipitation data in the study area have not changed during the last 33 years, and there are no big gaps. However, predominantly increasing trends in precipitation time series were found at most of the gauging stations in Slovakia. The results corroborate previous climatic studies in the area of central Europe. In Slovakia, there is evidence of different rain distribution from the monthly point of view. Decreasing trends were detected in December in the northern part of Slovakia, while the central and southern parts revealed increasing trends. Most of the stations showed increasing summer precipitation trends, especially in July. It is expected that the findings of this comprehensive study of precipitation trends over Slovakia will produce more insights for the understanding of the regional hydrological behavior in Slovakia over the last several decades. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation; Mann–Kendall statistical test; trend analysis; Slovakia precipitation; Mann–Kendall statistical test; trend analysis; Slovakia
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Zeleňáková, M.; Vido, J.; Portela, M.M.; Purcz, P.; Blištán, P.; Hlavatá, H.; Hluštík, P. Precipitation Trends over Slovakia in the Period 1981–2013. Water 2017, 9, 922.

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