Beijing is located on multiple alluvial-pluvial fans with thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. It has suffered serious groundwater drawdown and land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation. This study aimed to introduce geographical distribution measure methods into land subsidence research characterizing, geographically, land subsidence, groundwater drawdown, and compressible layer thickness. Therefore, we used gravity center analysis and standard deviational ellipse (SDE) methods in GIS to statistically analyze their concentration tendency, principle orientation, dispersion trend, and distribution differences in 1995 (1999), 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Results show that they were all concentrated in Chaoyang District of Urban Beijing. The concentration trend of land subsidence was consistent with that of groundwater drawdown. The principle orientation of land subsidence was SW–NE, which was more similar with that of the static spatial distribution of the compressible layer. The dispersion tendency of land subsidence got closer to that of the compressible layer with its increasing intensity. The spatial distribution difference between land subsidence and groundwater drawdown was about 0.2, and that between land subsidence and compressible layer thickness it decreased from 0.22 to 0.07, reflecting that the spatial distribution pattern of land subsidence was increasingly close to that of the compressible layer. Results of this study are useful for assessing the distribution of land subsidence development and managing groundwater resources.
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