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Changing Characteristics of the Water Consumption Structure in Nanjing City, Southern China

School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, China
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Y. Jun Xu, Guangxin Zhang and Hongyan Li
Water 2016, 8(8), 314;
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
PDF [1353 KB, uploaded 25 July 2016]


Understanding the changes in water consumption structure in order to take measures for demand control is very important for sustainable water resources management. In this study, using the Southern China area of Nanjing as an example, we employed the information entropy method to analyze the water consumption structure, as well as the grey incidence analysis to analyze synthetic incidence degree of the factors associated with agricultural, industrial, domestic, and ecological water consumption. The results show that the degree of balance among water consumption sectors has increased from 0.755 to 0.825 between 1993 and 2014. Gradual decrease of the relative proportion of a single water user structure in a water consumption system has made the utilization of water resources in Nanjing rational and diversified. The study identifies three stages of transformation of water structure in Nanjing, namely, a growth period from 1993 to 2002, an adjustment period from 2003 to 2010, and another growth period from 2011 to 2014. The synthetic incidence degree analysis indicates that adjustments of the agricultural and industrial water consumption as well as water saving measures are the main factors that affected water consumption structure in Nanjing. It is expected that the results obtained from this study will provide references to optimize the utilization of urban water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: information entropy; Nanjing city; water consumption structure; water resources management information entropy; Nanjing city; water consumption structure; water resources management

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, H.; Wang, X.; Shahid, S.; Ye, M. Changing Characteristics of the Water Consumption Structure in Nanjing City, Southern China. Water 2016, 8, 314.

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