- freely available
Water 2016, 8(10), 445; doi:10.3390/w8100445
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Catalan and California Study Area Descriptions
2.1.1. Catalan River Basin District, Catalonia, Spain (EU)
2.1.2. San Francisco Bay Area Integrated Regional Water Management Region, California (US)
3. Approaches to IWRM and Flood Risk Management in Spain and the United States
3.1. Flood Management and IWRM in Spain: Integrating the European WFD and the FD into the River Basin Confederations
3.2. Flood Management and IWRM in the US: National and State-Level Initiatives
4.1. Institutional Context
4.1.1. Catalan River Basin District
4.1.2. SF Bay Area
- Integrated flood management and land use
- Leverage natural watershed features
- Adopt a “best mix” of structural and nonstructural approaches
- Implement regional flood management at a system scale
- Promote multiple benefits
- Implement multiple-hazard management
4.2. Approach to Flood Risk Management and IWRM
4.2.1. Catalan River Basin District
4.2.2. SF Bay Area
4.3. Governance System (Coordination and Public Participation)
4.3.1. Catalan River Basin District
4.3.2. SF Bay Area
4.4. Capacity to Adapt to Change
Conflicts of Interest
|DWR||California Department of Water Resources|
|FD||the EU Floods Directive|
|FEMA||the US Federal Emergency Management Agency|
|IRWM||Integrated Regional Water Management (the California program)|
|IWRM||Integrated Water Resource Management (the general approach/concept)|
|NFIP||National Flood Insurance Program|
|WFD||the EU Water Framework Directive|
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|Study Area||Catalan River Basin District (Catalonia, Spain)||San Francisco Bay Area IRWM Region (CA, US)|
|Overarching program||EU—Water Framework Directive (2000)|
EU—Floods Directive (2007)
Top-down approach, obligatory
|DWR—Integrated Regional Water|
Management Program (2002)
Bottom-up approach, voluntary
|Boundaries (area)||Catchment boundary (16,428 km2) for integrated water management since 1929, 15 sub-units of management since 2011||Catchment boundary (17,770 km2) for integrated water management since 2004|
|Population||~7 million inhabitants||~7 million inhabitants|
|Integrated water management plan||Catalan River Basin District Management Plan (2009 first cycle, 2015 second cycle) (536 pages + annexes)||San Francisco Bay Area Integrated Regional Water Management Plan (2006, updated in 2013) (963 pages)|
|Leading organization: Statutory Water Agency||Leading organization: Coordinating Committee, composed of 14 local water-related agencies and non-governmental organizations|
|Based on the WFD’s goal: “Good ecological status of all waters by 2015”||Based on 5 specific regional goals for the San Francisco Bay Area IRWM Region:|
“Promote environmental, economic and social sustainability”
“Improve water supply reliability and quality”
“Protect and improve catchment health and function and Bay water quality”
“Improve regional flood management”
“Create, protect, enhance and maintain environmental resources and habitats”
|Budget: 917 M€ for 6 years (2015–2021) 97 M€ (10%) for flood projects||Budget: $238 M (2004–2016; additional funding may follow) (equivalent to 211 M€) $163 M (68%) for flood projects (equivalent to 145 M€)|
|Integrated flood risk management plan||Required: Catalan River Basin District Flood Risk Management Plan (2015 first cycle) (2 main documents: general measures (119 pages) + hydrological measures (80 pages) + annexes) |
Leading organization: Statutory Water Agency
Based on the Floods Directive’s goal: “To reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity”
|No specific flood risk management plan required, but the region’s flood risks and needs must be discussed in the IRWM plan|
|Governance Approach||Institutional Context||Approach to Flood Risk Management and IWRM||Governance System (Coordination and Public Participation)||Capacity to Adapt to Change|
|Top-down (EU/Catalan River Basin District)||Acceptance of state and regional authority over water planning.|
Subject to goals and timeframes (WFD and FD) common to all river basins districts in the EU.
Planning must be at river basin scale—15 sub-units of management for the Catalan River Basin District.
|Must coordinate all flood risk management efforts with IWRM effort (river basin plan under WFD).|
Flood risk assessment and mapping conducted at river basin scale.
Utilizes risk-based approach to choosing measures (flood risk maps guide selection of projects).
|Long history of river basin scale planning, which has facilitated coordination (led by Catalan Water Agency).|
WFD and FD requirements have led to expanded participation and coordination between different organizations in the region in charge of flood management. However, local agency participation is limited, primarily occurring during the public participation process.
Regional-level plans related to flood management and land use are being coordinated, but future enforcement is uncertain.
|Relatively stable funding and presence of a coordinating entity enables focus on long-term. However, financial problems of the Catalan Water Agency requires rethinking future funding.|
Required to consider climate change in WFD and FD planning processes.
6-year planning cycle promotes updating based on new knowledge.
Participation may generate new knowledge, if ownership of process is adequate.
|Bottom-up (California/SanFrancisco Bay Area IRWM Region)||Long-standing norms of local control over water resources.|
Common framework at state level, but allows regions to define their own goals and timeframes.
River basin/catchment scale encouraged, but regions can choose own boundaries. SF Bay IRWM follows catchment boundary.
|All flood management activities are not required to be linked with the IWRM effort (SF Bay Plan).|
Flood risk assessment and mapping not conducted at regional scale. FEMA continues to provide flood maps to local agencies for their use.
Does not utilize risk-based approach to select projects.
Local agencies propose projects for inclusion, which are prioritized based on multiple criteria.
|With no history of water planning at regional scale, no single entity existed to facilitate coordination.|
IRWM program requirements have resulted in expanded public participation, and led to the formation of new, regional-scale network of local flood managers. Direct involvement of local agencies helps ensure ownership of proposed projects.
Little coordination with land use planning, at regional and local level.
|Uncertain future funding and lack of a coordinating entity leads to short-term focus.|
IRWM plans are required to discuss/incorporate climate change impacts but FEMA floodplain maps do not yet incorporate climate change.
Periodic plan updates promotes incorporation of new knowledge, if funding is available.
Participation is likely to generate new knowledge due to high level of ownership of proposed projects.
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