Short Global History of Fountains
Nullusenim fons non sacer.(There is no spring which is not sacred),Servius Marius Honoratus, 4th century AD, Rome.
2. Minoans and Ancient Egyptians
2.1. Water Distribution Systems
- Underground Transportation of Water: This (underground = unseen) system may have been intended for use by a restricted group of people or for a specific activity, which in turn may be indicative of ritual use of water .
- Transportation of Good Quality Water. The evidence also suggests that the pipes probably fed fountains in open areas of the palaces which were not part of the domestic distribution system, according to several scholars .
2.3. Non-European Ancient Civilizations (from 3000 Onwards)
“The earliest surviving carved water basin, dating from around 3000 BC, was discovered at the site of Tello, one of the cities of Mesopotamia. At Mari, another of the most important cities, a stone fountain figure dating from around 2000 BC was discovered. The figure can be considered a prototype for the kind of fountains made in gardens for thousands of years thereafter: a female goddess holding a base into which water is piped to cascade forth, symbolizing the source of all life, the ultimate creative force of the garden.”
3. Etruscan Civilization (ca. 800 BC–200 AD)
4. The History of Wells and Fountains in Early Chinese Dynasties
5. Greco-Roman European Classical Antiquity
5.1. The Classical and Hellenistic periods (ca.5thc.–1stc. BC)
5.2. Roman Period (4th c. BC–4th c. AD)
6. Medieval Times
6.1. The Byzantine Period (ca. 4th c–15th c. AD)
6.2. Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Times in Western Europe (ca. 450–1700)
6.3. Fountains and Islam
“We made from water every living thing.”(Qur’an 21:30)
“And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in sixth days, and his Throne was upon the water.”(Qur’an 11:7)
“He sends down saving rain for them when they have lost all hope and spreads abroad His mercy.”(Qur’an 25:48)
7. Modern Times
7.1. The Ottoman Period
7.2. Evolution of Fountains in Late Chinese Dynasties
7.3. Industrial Times
- Throughout history, fountains have been an essential part of water supply that provides water resources sustainability for the survival and well-being of humans. Thus, ancient fountains should be considered, not only historical artifacts, but also potential models for sustainable water technologies now and in the future.
- Ancient water technologies, including fountains and well- or cisterns-like fountains, were characterized by simplicity, ease of operation, and lack of complex controls, which makes them more sustainable. However, they have lost some of their importance for modern water supply purposes in the developed parts of the world, whereas they are more applicable in the developing parts of the world .
Conflicts of Interest
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Juuti, P.S.; Antoniou, G.P.; Dragoni, W.; El-Gohary, F.; De Feo, G.; Katko, T.S.; Rajala, R.P.; Zheng, X.Y.; Drusiani, R.; Angelakis, A.N. Short Global History of Fountains. Water 2015, 7, 2314-2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7052314
Juuti PS, Antoniou GP, Dragoni W, El-Gohary F, De Feo G, Katko TS, Rajala RP, Zheng XY, Drusiani R, Angelakis AN. Short Global History of Fountains. Water. 2015; 7(5):2314-2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7052314Chicago/Turabian Style
Juuti, Petri S., Georgios P. Antoniou, Walter Dragoni, Fatma El-Gohary, Giovanni De Feo, Tapio S. Katko, Riikka P. Rajala, Xiao Yun Zheng, Renato Drusiani, and Andreas N. Angelakis. 2015. "Short Global History of Fountains" Water 7, no. 5: 2314-2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7052314