- freely available
Water 2015, 7(4), 1497-1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7041497
1.1. The Problem of Implementation
1.2. Implementing Water Supply Projects
1.3. Inconsistent Definitions
|Term||Examples of Inconsistencies in Definitions|
|Sustainability||“[T]he ability of a [water supply and sanitation] development project to maintain or expand a flow of benefits at a specified level for a long period after project inputs have ceased. In the narrowest meaning, the project is the physical infrastructure established and maintained/operated by the participating institutions” (, p. 5).|
“[W]hether or not something continues to work over time” (, p. 5).
“A drinking water supply is sustainable if: the water consumed is not over-exploited but naturally replenished [,] facilities are maintained in a condition which ensures a reliable and adequate potable water supply [, and] the benefits of the supply continue to be realized over a prolonged period of time” (, p. 6).
A sustained water supply is “…a service that regularly and reliably provides enough water of an acceptable standard for at least domestic use. Breakdowns are rare and repairs rapid (within 48 h), and local financing covers at least the regular costs of operation, maintenance (O&M) and repairs” (, p. vi).
|Scaling Up||“The extent to which an intervention can be delivered on a large scale taking into account promotion activities and materials needed” (, p. 988).|
“The term scaling up, is used with a variety of meanings, the most common of which is simply to expand a given initiative to benefit a larger number of individuals” (, p. 5).
|Enabling Environment||(all-encompassing) “The set of interrelated conditions that impact on the capacity of...development actors... in a sustained and effective manner” , p.4.|
(narrow) “The policy, institutional and financial framework that is necessary for sustaining and replicating large scale…programs” .
1.4. Distinctions and Interdependencies of Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment
|Concept||Definition||Purpose||Measurement and Evaluation|
|Sustainability||Performance over time.||To develop long-term performance of a service, project, program or sector-wide.||Functional, achieves identified goals; efficient financing and management.|
|Scaling Up||Increased numbers of populations and/or geographic space.||Contextualized adoption and implementation of an activity by more than the initially intended number of geographic spaces, institutions, processes, and relationships.||Number of people reached by intervention on a geographical scale.|
|Enabling Environment||Conditions that encourage sustainability and/or scaling up.||The context that can “grow” a desired process and outcome. Context can include culture, social norms, etc.||Presence and implementation of policies and laws that designate clear roles and responsibilities; capacity and capability.|
2.1. Sustainability of Water Projects and Services
2.2. Sustainability Factors
3. Scaling Up
3.3. Scaling Up
4. Enabling Environment
4.1. What is an Enabling Environment?
4.3. Links to Sustainability and Scaling Up in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene
4.4. A Bottom-Up Definition of the Enabling Environment for Water Supply
5. Framework for Implementing Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment
5.1. Objects: What Is Being Implemented?
5.2. Actors: Who Is Doing the Implementation?
5.3. Work: What Is the Process of Implementation?
5.4. Understanding: How Do the Actors Understand Implementation (of Sustainability, Scaling Up, Enabling Environment)?
6. Applications to the Case Study: Water Provision in Schools
6.2. Scaling Up
6.3. Enabling Environment
7. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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