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Socio-Technological Influences on Future Water Demands

School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B152TT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2014, 6(7), 1961-1984;
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
The traditional water supply management approach focuses on (perceived) community requirements that must be met, but not on community demands, which are variable. Therefore a paradigm-shift is required to the way water is considered. In this paper two fundamental management measures to influence daily water demand and therefore conservation are considered: (1) Technological efficiency measures (i.e., via adopting water-saving devices); and (2) User behaviour (i.e., how users interact with and use the technologies). Through a newly developed futures framework, the individual and combined impact of these approaches within residential and office buildings are examined. Results show each in isolation has similar impacts (i.e., 55% reduction) on domestic water consumption per capita, although the ranges over which user behaviour can operate appears to be far more diverse. Most strikingly, when these measures are considered in combination, greater impact (i.e., 80% reduction) could be achieved. Conclusions are drawn as to how far water demand management, through a dual track approach, can go in terms of reducing indoor water consumption of both residential and office users within the UK. The paper provides philosophical arguments for what else is needed in order to secure sufficient, sustainable water supplies within a “liveable” future. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban water demand management; user behaviour; water saving devices urban water demand management; user behaviour; water saving devices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zadeh, S.M.; Hunt, D.V.L.; Rogers, C.D.F. Socio-Technological Influences on Future Water Demands. Water 2014, 6, 1961-1984.

AMA Style

Zadeh SM, Hunt DVL, Rogers CDF. Socio-Technological Influences on Future Water Demands. Water. 2014; 6(7):1961-1984.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zadeh, Sarah M., Dexter V.L. Hunt, and Christopher D.F. Rogers 2014. "Socio-Technological Influences on Future Water Demands" Water 6, no. 7: 1961-1984.

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