The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India
2. The Study Watersheds
3. Study Approach
4. Field Research and Data Analysis
4.1. Participatory Groundwater Monitoring
4.2. Hydrologic Measurements
4.3. Socio-Economic Survey
4.4. Engagement with Schools and Local Communities
5.1. Understanding the Local Groundwater Situation
5.2. Bhujal Jankaars
5.3. Engaging with Local Community
5.4. Socio-Economic Dimension of Groundwater Management
- Cluster A-future and market oriented, with a preference for MAR;
- Cluster B-future, non-market oriented with a focus on water use efficiency;
- Cluster C-present non-market orientation; and
- Cluster D-present market orientation.
|Groundwater Attitudinal Questions (Yes/No Response)||Cluster (Proportion Yes Response)|
|GW A||GW B||GW C||GW D|
|How likely is it that your children will take over your farm in the future?||0.76||0.82||0.58||0.46|
|Do you think that increasing the depth of your well has had an impact on your neighbours?||0.78||0.51||0.08||0.00|
|Will the current depth of well/ tubewell be sufficient in the next 5 years for your current cropping pattern?||0.21||0.13||0.11||0.25|
|Is MAR the best way to maintain your well?||0.76||0.30||0.37||0.01|
|Is efficient water use the best way to maintain your well?||0.86||0.91||0.50||0.16|
|Has your neighbour’s groundwater use reduced the amount of water in your well?||0.89||0.93||0.04||0.15|
|Would you be willing to share the water and costs of a recharge scheme with other farmers close to you?||0.96||0.73||0.32||0.86|
|Would you be willing to reduce the number of watering if it meant that water would be assured for your children?||0.92||0.88||0.44||0.30|
|If your managed recharge scheme increases the water available for your neighbours, should they compensate you?||0.99||0.08||0.05||0.93|
|If your neighbours managed recharge scheme increases the water in your well, should you pay them?||0.99||0.11||0.07||0.96|
|Would you be willing to adopt a new groundwater management scheme that shared water and costs fairly amongst all irrigators in your village?||1.00||0.99||0.82||1.00|
5.5. Groundwater and Gender
6.1. Capacity Building of BJs as Local Champions
6.2. Managing Complexity of Groundwater Use
6.3. Challenges of Sharing Groundwater
6.4. Making Community Engagement Effective
|Participation Level||Participation Type||Description|
|A||Functional Participation||Participation seen by external agencies as a means to achieve project goals, especially reduced costs. People may participate by forming groups to meet predetermined objectives related to the project. Such involvement may be interactive and involve shared decision-making, but tends to arise only after major decisions have already been made by external agents. At worst, local people may still only be co-opted to serve external goals.|
|B||Interactive Participation||People participate in joint analysis, development of action plans and formation or strengthening of local institutions. Participation is seen as a right, not just the means to achieve project goals. The process involves interdisciplinary methodologies that seek multiple perspectives and make use of systemic and structured learning processes. As groups take control over local decisions and determine how available resources are used, so they have a stake in maintaining structures or practices.|
|C||Self-Mobilization||People participate by taking initiatives independently of external institutions to change systems. They develop contacts with external institutions for resources and technical advice they need, but retain control over how resources are used. Self-mobilization can spread if governments and NGOs provide an enabling framework of support. Such self-initiated mobilization may or may not challenge existing distributions of wealth and power.|
7. Concluding Remarks
Conflicts of Interest
- World Bank. Deep Well and Prudence: Towards Pragmatic Action for Addressing Groundwater Overexploitation in India; The World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2010; p. 97. [Google Scholar]
- Siebert, S.; Burke, J.; Faures, J.M.; Frenken, K.; Hoogeveen, J.; Döll, P.; Portmann, F.T. Groundwater use for irrigation—A global inventory. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2010, 14, 1863–1880. [Google Scholar]
- Shah, T. India’s groundwater irrigation economy: The Challenge of balancing livelihoods and environment. In Handbook on Environmental Economics in India; Chopra, K., Dayal, V., Eds.; Oxford University Press: New Delhi, India, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Shah, T. Taming the Anarchy: Groundwater Governance in South Asia; Routledge: New Delhi, India, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- MNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act). Available online: http://www.nrega.ap.gov.in/ (accessed on 5 September 2014).
- Uphoff, N.; Wijayaratna, C.M. Demonstrated Benefits from Social Capital: The Productivity of Farmer Organisations in Gal Oya, Sri Lanka. World Dev. 2000, 28, 1875–1890. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water in India; Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources: New Delhi, India, 2013. Available online: http://cgwb.gov.in/documents/MasterPlan-2013.pdf (accessed on 6 November 2014).
- India-WRIS. Water Resources Information System of India. Available online: www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in (accessed on 7 November 2014).
- Chambers, R.; Conway, G.R. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century; IDS Discussion Paper No. 296; Institute of Development Studies: Brighton, UK, 1991; p. 29. [Google Scholar]
- Rogers, A.A. Public and expert preference divergence: Evidence from a choice experiment of marine reserves in Australia. Land Econ. 2013, 89, 346–370. [Google Scholar]
- Ward, J.; Dillon, P. Design principles to coordinate managed aquifer recharge with natural resource management policies in Australia. Hydrogeol. J. 2012, 20, 943–956. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Planning Commission of India. Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth: An Approach Paper to 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–2017); Planning Commission, Government of India: New Delhi, India, 2011; p. 137.
- Mishra, P.; SWATCH, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Personal communication, 2014.
- Govardhan Das, S.V.; Rao, P.S.; Mani, K.A.S. Practices that can combat Poverty and Distress in India. In Proceedings of the 128th Session of International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ICARRD): New Challenges and Options for Revitalising Rural Communities, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande de Sul, Brazil, 7–10 March 2006; p. 12.
- Ostrom, E. How types of goods and property rights jointly affect collective action. J. Theor. Polit. 2003, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sriskandarajah, N.; Fisher, R.J.; Packham, R.G. Community Participation in Natural Resource Management: Lessons from Field Experience. In Proceedings of the Regional Seminar “Ecotone V” on Community Participation in Conservation, Sustainable Use and Rehabilitation of Mangroves in Southeast Asia, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 8–12 January 1996.
- Arnstein, S.A. A Ladder of Citizen Participation. J. Am. Inst. Plan. 1969, 35, 216–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pretty, J. Participatory Learning for Integrated Farming. Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems; Foo, E.-L., Senta, T.D., Eds.; Institute of Advanced Studies, UN University: Tokyo, Japan, 1998. Available online: http://www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs (accessed on 7 November 2014).
© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Maheshwari, B.; Varua, M.; Ward, J.; Packham, R.; Chinnasamy, P.; Dashora, Y.; Dave, S.; Soni, P.; Dillon, P.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Shah, T.; Oza, S.; Singh, P.; Prathapar, S.; Patel, A.; Jadeja, Y.; Thaker, B.; Kookana, R.; Grewal, H.; Yadav, K.; Mittal, H.; Chew, M.; Rao, P. The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. Water 2014, 6, 3386-3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w6113386
Maheshwari B, Varua M, Ward J, Packham R, Chinnasamy P, Dashora Y, Dave S, Soni P, Dillon P, Purohit R, Hakimuddin, Shah T, Oza S, Singh P, Prathapar S, Patel A, Jadeja Y, Thaker B, Kookana R, Grewal H, Yadav K, Mittal H, Chew M, Rao P. The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. Water. 2014; 6(11):3386-3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w6113386Chicago/Turabian Style
Maheshwari, Basant, Maria Varua, John Ward, Roger Packham, Pennan Chinnasamy, Yogita Dashora, Seema Dave, Prahlad Soni, Peter Dillon, Ramesh Purohit, Hakimuddin, Tushaar Shah, Sachin Oza, Pradeep Singh, Sanmugam Prathapar, Ashish Patel, Yogesh Jadeja, Brijen Thaker, Rai Kookana, Harsharn Grewal, Kamal Yadav, Hemant Mittal, Michael Chew, and Pratap Rao. 2014. "The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India" Water 6, no. 11: 3386-3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w6113386