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Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies
Institute of Iraklio, National Agricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), Iraklio 71110, Greece
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano (SA) 84084, Italy
IPOGEA, Via Roma 595, Bagno a Ripoli Firenze 50012, Italy
Cultural Association Ithaki, Rome 00040, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2013; in revised form: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Abstract: The aim of this study is to present water and wastewater technologies used during the Minoan (ca. 3200–1100 BC) and Etruscan (ca. 800–100 BC) civilizations. The basic technologies considered are: water harvesting and distribution systems, cisterns, groundwater and wells as well as drainage and sewerage systems. Minoan water collection and distribution systems primarily consisted of cisterns and pipes. The Etruscans’ hydro-technology also consisted of cisterns and pipes but was developed for urban areas and included distinctions between public and private water use. The long-term sustainability of Minoan cisterns is evidenced by the fact that this technique is still practiced today in rural areas of Crete. In addition to cisterns, wells have been used in Crete since Neolithic times, and enjoyed wide-spread use during the Etruscan era. All the Minoan palaces applied strategies to dispose of water and wastewater with open terracotta or stone masonry-conduits, and stone masonry sewers; while, the drainage and sewerage systems developed by the Etruscans were based both on a coordinated and comprehensive planning of the slopes of drainage channels on the sides of streets as well as on a massive use of drainage tunnels.
Keywords: cisterns; drainage and sewerage systems; Etruscan; Minoan; water distribution systems; water harvesting; water supply; wastewater; wells
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Angelakis, A.N.; De Feo, G.; Laureano, P.; Zourou, A. Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies. Water 2013, 5, 972-987.
Angelakis AN, De Feo G, Laureano P, Zourou A. Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies. Water. 2013; 5(3):972-987.
Angelakis, Andreas N.; De Feo, Giovanni; Laureano, Pietro; Zourou, Anastasia. 2013. "Minoan and Etruscan Hydro-Technologies." Water 5, no. 3: 972-987.