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Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

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University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, South West Region 273, Cameroon
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National Advanced School of Public Works (ENSTP) Yaoundé, B.P. 510, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2010, 2(2), 285-306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w2020285
Received: 30 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF) is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-sand filtration; zero-valent iron; microbial reductions; household drinking water treatment bio-sand filtration; zero-valent iron; microbial reductions; household drinking water treatment
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Tellen, V.; Nkeng, G.; Dentel, S. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies. Water 2010, 2, 285-306.

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