Geochemical Response of Surface Environment to Mining of Sn-Pb-Zn Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study of Dachang Tin Polymetallic Deposit in Guangxi
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The Study Area
2.2. Sampling Methods
2.3. Analysis Methods
2.4. Data Processing
2.4.1. Deposition Ratio
2.4.2. Content Variation Coefficient
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Atmospheric Dust
3.2. Mine Drainage and Surface Water
3.3. Solid Wastes
3.4. Risk Assessment for Soil and Crops in Mining Area
3.5. Comprehensive Environmental Response and Pollution Prevention Suggestions
3.5.1. Mechanism of Heavy Metal Migration and Transformation
3.5.2. Potential Risk Assessment
3.5.3. Suggestions on Prevention and Control of Pollution
- The area of concentrated mining activities is mainly contaminated through atmospheric deposition, of which smelting emissions are the main source, supplemented by dust from transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to control atmospheric heavy metal deposition within the mine area. Rainfall has a significant impact on the concentration and flux of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, the smelting operation should be properly adjusted in the rainy season to prevent flux increases due to the driving force of rainfall, and the mining and transportation plan can be improved to minimize dust emissions.
- Downstream of the mining area, the main focus should be on sediment management. Through the ore district, the river is fast flowing and downcutting the surrounding geology. The middle and lower reaches are more prone to lateral erosion and sedimentation as the flow velocity decreases and the river channel widens. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the risk of secondary pollution caused by heavy metals in sediment where the tributaries converge into the main river, river convex banks, and floodplains. There are differential hazards to corn and rice crops. Consequently, we recommend adjusting the planting structure accordingly, gradually converting paddy fields to dryland crops to reduce the risks associated with paddy soils and irrigation, and planting mainly dryland crops that are safe for consumption.
- The heavy metals pollution caused by atmospheric deposition in the mine area is relatively high. The annual deposition flux density of Cd is two-times higher than the relevant standards. Influenced by climate and topography, heavy metals contamination from atmospheric deposition migrates about 25 km along the wind direction and then decreases. About 90% of the heavy metals migrate in the form of vertical deposition in the mine area.
- Effluent drainage from the ore district contains individual heavy metals exceeding the standards, but the water quality of the river is less affected by the mining activities. After treatment, only As slightly exceeded the standard at the river bend, the pH of the water was neutral–alkaline, and the concentrations of soluble heavy metal ions were low.
- Weathering and migration of ore and tailings contribute to high concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments, mainly downstream of the mine. Risks associated with migration of sulfide particles are high, while heavy metals migrating in chemical form are more stable after co-precipitated with carbonates or adsorbed by secondary iron oxides.
- The soil in the mine area is greatly affected by mining activities. The surface soil is significantly enriched in heavy metals and greatly exceeds the standards. It is mainly influenced by atmospheric deposition. The risks of the soil environment to various crops differ. Cd in rice greatly exceeds the standard, while corn does not exhibit heavy metals exceedances and can be safely consumed.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Dry Season||Rainy Season|
|Annual deposition flux density of heavy metals in the atmosphere of different regions [19,20,21,22,23,24]|
|Mine Sewage (n = 3)||Tailings pond/dam||0.33||0.0005||0.0007||0.037||1372||6.61|
|GB 25466-2010||Direct Discharge||0.3||0.05||0.5||1.5||-||6–9|
|Surface Water (n = 6)||Range||0.018–0.18||0.0001–0.0032||0.0006–0.0007||0.0095–0.047||87.4–250||7.75–8.06|
|GB 3838-2002||Class III||0.05||0.005||0.05||1.0||250||6–9|
|Tailings (n = 2)||Min||3.57||2.51||5484||22.6||328||2833||7.71|
|Ore (n = 4)||Min||21.42||21.87||32,440||85.90||3395||10,310||3.20|
|Sediment (n = 6)||Min||5.00||0.06||32.60||1.60||34||243||7.32|
|Paddy Field (n = 3)||As||Cd||Pb||Zn||pH|
|Dryland (n = 62)||As||Cd||Pb||Zn||pH|
|Rice (n = 3)||As||Cd||Pb||Zn||Corn (n = 62)||As||Cd||Pb||Zn|
|Exceedance rate||-||100%||0%||-||Exceedance rate||0%||0%||0%||-|
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Li, B.; Yu, T.; Ji, W.; Liu, X.; Lin, K.; Li, C.; Ma, X.; Yang, Z. Geochemical Response of Surface Environment to Mining of Sn-Pb-Zn Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study of Dachang Tin Polymetallic Deposit in Guangxi. Water 2023, 15, 1550. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081550
Li B, Yu T, Ji W, Liu X, Lin K, Li C, Ma X, Yang Z. Geochemical Response of Surface Environment to Mining of Sn-Pb-Zn Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study of Dachang Tin Polymetallic Deposit in Guangxi. Water. 2023; 15(8):1550. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081550Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Bo, Tao Yu, Wenbing Ji, Xu Liu, Kun Lin, Cheng Li, Xudong Ma, and Zhongfang Yang. 2023. "Geochemical Response of Surface Environment to Mining of Sn-Pb-Zn Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study of Dachang Tin Polymetallic Deposit in Guangxi" Water 15, no. 8: 1550. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081550