# Effect of Impounding on Bedrock Temperature of High Arch Dam Site: A Case Study of the Xiluodu Project, China

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Thermo-Hydromechanical Coupling Method

#### 2.1. Constitutive

#### 2.2. Verification

## 3. Evolution of the Dam Foundation Temperature Field

#### 3.1. Finite Element Model

#### 3.2. Temperature Field of Bedrock before Impoundment

#### 3.3. Seepage State of the Bedrock after Impoundment

#### 3.4. Analysis of the Temperature Field after Impoundment

#### 3.5. The Influence of Rock Permeability on Temperature Field

#### 3.6. Mechanism of Temperature Drop

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 10.**Pore water pressure and flow velocity of the bedrock with a reservoir water level of 600 m.

**Figure 14.**Temperature fields and temperature drop fields of bedrock with different permeability coefficients after 10 years of reservoir impoundment (unit: °C).

**Figure 15.**Temperature at Point 6 in bedrock with different permeabilities varies with water storage date.

Parameters | Symbol | Unit | Value |
---|---|---|---|

Initial temperature | ${T}_{0}$ | °C | 87 |

Inlet fluid temperature | ${T}_{in}$ | °C | 42 |

Fluid thermal conductivity | ${\lambda}_{w}$ | kW/m/°C | 0.6 |

Thermal conductivity of rock | ${\lambda}_{m}$ | kW/m/°C | 3.5 |

Fluid-specific heat capacity | ${c}_{w}$ | J/kg/°C | 4200 |

Specific heat capacity of rock | ${c}_{m}$ | J/kg/°C | 790 |

Fluid density | ${\rho}_{w}$ | kg/m^{3} | 1000 |

Fracture width | $2b$ | μm | 10 |

Rock width | $2R$ | mm | 51 |

Rock length | $L$ | mm | 102 |

Material | Elastic Modulus (GPa) | Poisson Ratio | Pore Ratio | Density (kg/m ^{3}) | Permeability Coefficient (m/s) | Thermal Expansion (1/°C) | Thermal Conductivity (kW/m/°C) | Specific Heat Capacity (J/kg/°C) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Basalt | 22 | 0.18 | 0.05 | 2700 | 5 × 10^{−7} | 8 × 10^{−6} | 2.7 | 860 |

Sedimentary Layer | 10 | 0.3 | 0.05 | 2600 | 1 × 10^{−8} | 8 × 10^{−6} | 1.4 | 860 |

Limestone | 15 | 0.22 | 0.20 | 2500 | 1 × 10^{−6} | 8 × 10^{−6} | 4.0 | 860 |

Grouted Curtain | 28 | 0.18 | 0.05 | 2750 | 1 × 10^{−9} | 8 × 10^{−6} | 1.4 | 860 |

Water | - | - | - | 1000 | - | - | 0.6 | 4200 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, L.; Ren, Q.; Shen, L.; Lu, W.; Tao, M.; Gu, J.
Effect of Impounding on Bedrock Temperature of High Arch Dam Site: A Case Study of the Xiluodu Project, China. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 340.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020340

**AMA Style**

Zhang L, Ren Q, Shen L, Lu W, Tao M, Gu J.
Effect of Impounding on Bedrock Temperature of High Arch Dam Site: A Case Study of the Xiluodu Project, China. *Water*. 2023; 15(2):340.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020340

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Linfei, Qingwen Ren, Lei Shen, Wenyan Lu, Mei Tao, and Jiafeng Gu.
2023. "Effect of Impounding on Bedrock Temperature of High Arch Dam Site: A Case Study of the Xiluodu Project, China" *Water* 15, no. 2: 340.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020340