# Experimental Study of Geometric Shape and Size of Sill Effects on the Hydraulic Performance of Sluice Gates

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### Experimental Set-Up

_{1}(C

_{d}, ρ, Q, g, μ, H, G, Z, b, B) = 0

_{1}(Q, B, b, Z, G, E

_{A}, E

_{B}, Y

_{A}, Y

_{B}, g, ρ, μ) = 0

_{A}and Y

_{B}are the water depths in sections A and B, and E

_{A}and E

_{B}are the specific energies in sections A and B, respectively. Equation (4) can be rewritten as:

_{A}and Re

_{A}represent the dimensionless Froude and Reynolds numbers, respectively. Finally, to provide a more compact relationship, Equation (5) is modified by forming ratios as follows:

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Effect of Sill Geometry and Width on Discharge Coefficient

#### 3.1.1. Hydraulic Jump Characteristic with Sill

#### 3.1.2. Non-Sill Mode

#### 3.1.3. The Effect of Sill Width on Hydraulic Jump Performance

#### 3.1.4. The Effect of Sill Width on the Performance of Hydraulic Jump Relative Depths

#### 3.1.5. Effect of Sill Geometry on Hydraulic Jump Performance

#### 3.1.6. The Effect of Sill Geometry on the Performance of Hydraulic Jump Relative Depths

## 4. Discussion

_{e}and W

_{e}are dependent on each other and vary with the opening of the gate, so one of the two must be eliminated; therefore, the effect of the Weber number was ignored. In order to check the effect of scale in the walls as well as possible, the experiments should be repeated for different widths of the flume and the results should be compared with the prototype. This research was conducted in a constant flume width in the laboratory and there was no prototype for this research. Therefore, the effect of scale has not been investigated, so the results can be correct for the flow conditions in this research [29,30,31,32,33].

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 6.**Laboratory images of hydraulic jump formation with rectangular cubic sills of different widths.

**Figure 7.**Relative energy loss for the (

**a–d**) upstream and (

**e–h**) downstream sections of the jump with sill.

**Figure 10.**Energy loss values for the (

**a–d**) upstream and (

**e–h**) downstream sections of the jump with sill.

Sill Geometry | Height (m) | Length (m) | Width (m) |
---|---|---|---|

Rectangular cubic | 0.03 | 0.03 | 0.075–0.20 |

Pyramidal | 0.03 | 0.03 | 0.075–0.20 |

Cylindrical | Cylindrical diameter = 0.03 | ||

Semi-cylindrical | Semi-cylindrical diameter = 0.03 |

Rectangular Cubic | Pyramidal | Cylindrical | Semi-Cylindrical | Sill Width (m) |
---|---|---|---|---|

3.9 | 5.7 | 7.4 | 7.4 | b = 0.075 |

12.1 | 14.7 | 17.2 | 19.1 | b = 0.20 |

**Table 3.**Percentage increase in energy consumption of the sluice gate with a sill in sections A and B compared to non-sill state.

Rectangular Cubic | Cylindrical | Semi-Cylindrical | Pyramidal | Sill Width (m) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ΔE/EB | ΔE/EA | ΔE/EB | ΔE/EA | ΔE/EB | ΔE/EA | ΔE/EB | ΔE/EA | Sill withs |

33 | 21.2 | 35.4 | 22.3 | 59 | 34.9 | 68 | 39.4 | b = 0.075 m |

260 | 115.3 | 260.2 | 116 | 268 | 118.9 | 295.9 | 125.4 | b = 0.20 m |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Daneshfaraz, R.; Norouzi, R.; Ebadzadeh, P.; Di Francesco, S.; Abraham, J.P.
Experimental Study of Geometric Shape and Size of Sill Effects on the Hydraulic Performance of Sluice Gates. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020314

**AMA Style**

Daneshfaraz R, Norouzi R, Ebadzadeh P, Di Francesco S, Abraham JP.
Experimental Study of Geometric Shape and Size of Sill Effects on the Hydraulic Performance of Sluice Gates. *Water*. 2023; 15(2):314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020314

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Daneshfaraz, Rasoul, Reza Norouzi, Parisa Ebadzadeh, Silvia Di Francesco, and John Patrick Abraham.
2023. "Experimental Study of Geometric Shape and Size of Sill Effects on the Hydraulic Performance of Sluice Gates" *Water* 15, no. 2: 314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020314