Field Performance of Rain Garden in Red Soil Area in Southern China
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Design Parameters for the Rain Garden
- Design storage capacity:
- Mediumvoid storage:
- Aquifer storage:
- The rain garden area:
2.3. Water Sample Collection
2.4. Data Analysis
2.5. Storage Capacity and the Rain Garden Area
2.6. Inlet and Cross-Section Design of the Rain Garden
- The aquifer was mainly for storage runoff and precipitation of TSS.
- The mulch layer was covered with bark of 50 mm deep, which could maintain soil moisture [22,39]. Moreover, a suitable microbial environment was built between the bark and soil layer, which was propitious to the microorganisms on the degradation of organic matter and reduce runoff erosion of the topsoil.
- The filter layer required good permeability to provide a suitable growth environment for plants. Its depth depended on the type of soil and plants. When herbs were used, its depth was about 250 mm. As the clay content of red soil was above 40%, its permeability coefficient was only 1.5 × 10−6 m·s−1. Runoff could not infiltrate as soon as possible or might even spillover if red soil was used as the planting soil without being amended. Therefore, the filter media layer was filled with a mix of 30% sand, 10% compost and 60% red soil as combination substrates, which provide better osmotic properties and organic matter. The permeability coefficient of the amended media layer was determined to be 1.48 × 10−5 m·s−1.
- The sand filter layer, with a depth of 100 mm, prevented the soil substrate from sinking and blocking the perforated drain.
- The gravel drainage layer was 200 mm in depth. There were two perforated under-drain pipes, 150 mm in diameter with a drilling diameter of 15 mm to 20 mm [40,41]. The perforated pipes were used for the timely discharge of the filtered water. The particle size of the gravel was 20–30 mm, which was greater than the perforation aperture. The middle of the perforated under-drain pipe had a 100 mm-diameter silt riser, which was used to regularly remove sediment in the perforated under-drain pipe.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Runoff Reduction and Pollutant Removal
3.2. Time Variation of Pollutant Concentrations
3.3. Limitations or Directions for Further Research
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|K||1.5 × 10−6||m·s−1||laboratory test|
|h||0.1||m||half of hm|
|Rainfall Event||Rainfall/mm||Runoff Reduction/%||EMC Reduction/%||Load Removal/%|
|Parent Material||Quaternary Red Clay||Granite||Arenite||Pelite|
|Proportion of red soil/%||4.1||17.1||11.6||13.2|
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Chen, C.; Li, Y.; Le, W.; You, C.; Liu, Z.; Liu, W.; Zhang, R. Field Performance of Rain Garden in Red Soil Area in Southern China. Water 2023, 15, 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020267
Chen C, Li Y, Le W, You C, Liu Z, Liu W, Zhang R. Field Performance of Rain Garden in Red Soil Area in Southern China. Water. 2023; 15(2):267. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020267Chicago/Turabian Style
Chen, Chunli, Yanqi Li, Wencai Le, Chengyun You, Zhenzhong Liu, Wei Liu, and Ru Zhang. 2023. "Field Performance of Rain Garden in Red Soil Area in Southern China" Water 15, no. 2: 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020267