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Article

Impact of Livestock Farming on Nitrogen Pollution and the Corresponding Energy Demand for Zero Liquid Discharge

1
DVGW-Research Center, Water Chemistry and Water Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Engler-Bunte-Institute, Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Frederick Ritter
Water 2022, 14(8), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081278
Received: 25 March 2022 / Revised: 12 April 2022 / Accepted: 14 April 2022 / Published: 15 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Intensive livestock farming has negatively impacted the environment by contributing to the release of ammonia and nitrous oxide, groundwater nitrate pollution and eutrophication of rivers and estuaries. The nitrogen footprint calculator has predicted the large impact of meat production on global nitrogen loss, but it could not form the relationship between meat production and the corresponding manure generation. Here we report on the formation of direct relationships between beef, pork and poultry meat production and the corresponding amount of nitrogen loss through manure. Consequently, the energy demand for ammonium nitrogen recovery from manure is also reported. Nitrogen loss to the environment per unit of meat production was found directly proportional to the virtual nitrogen factors. The relationship between total nitrogen intake and the corresponding nitrogen loss per kg of meat production was also found linear. Average nitrogen loss due to manure application was calculated at 110 g kg−1 for poultry. The average nitrogen loss increased to 190 and 370 g-N kg−1 for pork and beef productions, respectively. Additionally, 147 kg ammonium nitrogen was calculated to be recovered from 123 m3 of manure. This corresponded to 1 Mg of beef production. The recovery of ammonium nitrogen was reduced to 126 and 52 kg from 45 and 13 m3 of pork and poultry manure, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen recovery values were calculated with respect to 1 Mg of both pork and poultry meat productions. Consequently, the specific energy demand of ammonium nitrogen recovery from beef manure was noticed at 49 kWh kg−1, which was significantly 57% and 69% higher than that of pork and poultry manure, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: livestock farming; nitrogen pollution; manure; resource recovery; zero liquid discharge livestock farming; nitrogen pollution; manure; resource recovery; zero liquid discharge
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MDPI and ACS Style

Samanta, P.; Horn, H.; Saravia, F. Impact of Livestock Farming on Nitrogen Pollution and the Corresponding Energy Demand for Zero Liquid Discharge. Water 2022, 14, 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081278

AMA Style

Samanta P, Horn H, Saravia F. Impact of Livestock Farming on Nitrogen Pollution and the Corresponding Energy Demand for Zero Liquid Discharge. Water. 2022; 14(8):1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081278

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samanta, Prantik, Harald Horn, and Florencia Saravia. 2022. "Impact of Livestock Farming on Nitrogen Pollution and the Corresponding Energy Demand for Zero Liquid Discharge" Water 14, no. 8: 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081278

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