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Article

Assessing the Effect of Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Discharge and Sediment Yield in a Rural Coal-Mine Dominated Watershed in Kentucky, USA

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College of Agriculture, Community, and the Sciences, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KT 40601, USA
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Aster Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., North Lawrence, OH 44666, USA
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Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research (TIAER), Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA
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College of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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Department of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness, Louisiana State University (LSU) and LSU Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LU 70803, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manoj K. Jha
Water 2022, 14(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040516
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2022 / Accepted: 4 February 2022 / Published: 9 February 2022
The Appalachian Mountain region of eastern Kentucky is unique and contains high proportions of forestland along with coal and natural gas depositaries. Landscape changes due to extreme mining activities can eventually threaten the downstream ecosystems, including soil and water quality, resulting in excessive runoff and sedimentation. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts of land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes in streamflow and sediment yield in Yellow Creek Watershed, Kentucky, USA, between 1992 and 2016. LULC, digital elevation model, soil, and weather data were inputted into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate discharge and sediment yield. The model output was evaluated on several statistical parameters, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), percent bias (PBIAS), and the coefficient of determination (R2). In addition, two indices, P-factor and R-factor, were used to measure the prediction uncertainty. The calibrated model showed an increase in surface runoff and sediment yield due to changes in LULC in the Yellow Creek Watershed. The results provided important insights for studying water management strategies to make more informed land management decisions and adaptive practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: Appalachia; coalmine; Kentucky; land-use and land-cover change; sediment; SWAT Appalachia; coalmine; Kentucky; land-use and land-cover change; sediment; SWAT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gyawali, B.; Shrestha, S.; Bhatta, A.; Pokhrel, B.; Cristan, R.; Antonious, G.; Banerjee, S.; Paudel, K.P. Assessing the Effect of Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Discharge and Sediment Yield in a Rural Coal-Mine Dominated Watershed in Kentucky, USA. Water 2022, 14, 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040516

AMA Style

Gyawali B, Shrestha S, Bhatta A, Pokhrel B, Cristan R, Antonious G, Banerjee S, Paudel KP. Assessing the Effect of Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Discharge and Sediment Yield in a Rural Coal-Mine Dominated Watershed in Kentucky, USA. Water. 2022; 14(4):516. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gyawali, Buddhi, Sandesh Shrestha, Aman Bhatta, Bijay Pokhrel, Richard Cristan, George Antonious, Swagata Banerjee, and Krishna P. Paudel. 2022. "Assessing the Effect of Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes on Discharge and Sediment Yield in a Rural Coal-Mine Dominated Watershed in Kentucky, USA" Water 14, no. 4: 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040516

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