Uncoupled Precipitation and Water Availability: The Case Study of Municipality of Sfakia, Crete, Greece
3. Karstification and Highly Permeability of Geological Layers
4. Physical Settings
- The annual duration of sunshine is longer in the coastal zone compared to the mountainous zones, where the average annual sunshine is limited by cloud formation that is favored by the surrounding geomorphology.
- The temperature variations are milder in coastal zone compared to mountainous areas (temperature difference between day and night). From October to April, lower temperature values are recorded in the eastern mountainous area, due to the northerly currents, which explain the more frequent snowing and frost, particularly early in the morning.
- The humidity factor also differs between the three zones, due mainly to variations in the altitude. The coastal zones show higher hygrometric conditions compared to mountainous areas, which is ascribed to sea proximity, but, again, the hygrometric conditions of the southern coastal areas are higher than those of the northern coastal areas. An important role in the differentiation hydrometric conditions is the frequent appearance of the north currents (“Meltemi”), especially during the summer period.
- Both mountainous areas show higher rainfall and snowfall compared to the eastern mountainous areas. The low coastal zones do not have high rainfall, and there are a number of surface streams–gorges that are reflected throughout the southern front of the municipality.
4.2.2. The Geological Structure of the Sfakia—“Lefka Ori” Mountains Area
4.2.3. Permeability and Infiltration
4.2.4. Overview of Land Cover, Soil Types and Hydrogeology
5. Historical Information of Water Supply
- LC of Askyfou: In June 1867, in Askyfou, a battle took place between Ottomans under Mehmet Pasha and the Sfakians. The Sfakians repulsed and trapped the Turks in Kares, until Resit Pasha came to their aid. Due to the heat and the lack of water, they were forced to leave Askyfou .
- LC of Anopolis: Anopolis is located in the synonymous plateau 13 km west of Chora, Sfakia. It is a small plateau formed below the Sfakiani Madara, which is considered to be one of the most inaccessible provinces in Europe. In the place of the present village of Anopolis was built the ancient city, which has been there since the Venetian time.
- LC Chora of Sfakia: The city of Chora is located on the south coast of Western Crete, near the end of the beautiful gorge of Imvros. During the Venetian occupation, the settlement was referred to as Obrosgialos; in the following years, it was called Sfakia and finally acquired its current name. It is the capital of the municipality, with 265 inhabitants in 2011.
- In Asfentou, there are numerous rainwater cisterns. Before World War II, there were over 100 cisterns. Each family had at least one cistern. Most of them were made by stone with a special cleaning entrance (Figure 14a). In the village of Vouva, the water supply was based on rainwater cisterns. There were family and community cisterns. A community one located at the western entrance of the settlement, approximately 50 m from the main road, is shown in Figure 14b. It was rebuilt in 1935 on a pre-existing one. In Imvros there are in the same place, at the eastern end of the settlement, 4–5 square cisterns/wells, a few meters away from each other and of an average depth of 15 m (Figure 14c). Each belonged to a family. Finally, a rainwater cistern with a dome is found right at the entrance to the settlement of ancient Aradena, shown in Figure 14d.
- LC Agia Roumeli: The water supply of the old settlement of Agia Roumeli, as well as the newer one, was based on springs of the gorge of Samaria. For this purpose, stone made terracotta conduits, and, recently, PVC pipes have been used.
6. Current Water Management and Water Supply in the Area of Sfakia: Problems and Future Challenges
6.1. Water Management and Water Supply
6.2. Current and Future Challenges
Conflicts of Interest
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Tzanakakis, V.A.; Pavlaki, A.; Lekkas, E.; Varouchakis, E.A.; Paranychianakis, N.V.; Fasarakis, G.; Angelakis, A.N. Uncoupled Precipitation and Water Availability: The Case Study of Municipality of Sfakia, Crete, Greece. Water 2022, 14, 462. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030462
Tzanakakis VA, Pavlaki A, Lekkas E, Varouchakis EA, Paranychianakis NV, Fasarakis G, Angelakis AN. Uncoupled Precipitation and Water Availability: The Case Study of Municipality of Sfakia, Crete, Greece. Water. 2022; 14(3):462. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030462Chicago/Turabian Style
Tzanakakis, Vasileios A., Aikaterini Pavlaki, Emmanouil Lekkas, Emmanouil A. Varouchakis, Nikolaos V. Paranychianakis, Giorgos Fasarakis, and Andreas N. Angelakis. 2022. "Uncoupled Precipitation and Water Availability: The Case Study of Municipality of Sfakia, Crete, Greece" Water 14, no. 3: 462. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030462