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Article

An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar

Department of Development and Sustainability, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
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Academic Editor: Fernando António Leal Pacheco
Water 2022, 14(18), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930
Received: 24 August 2022 / Revised: 15 September 2022 / Accepted: 15 September 2022 / Published: 19 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
This study aims to analyze the actors and institutions for public water supply governance in armed conflict areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Using Stakeholder Salience Theory and Institutional Analysis of data collected from four participatory workshops and interviews with 160 water stakeholders from the four townships in Rakhine State, the findings revealed that although the water supply system is managed and governed by the state water authorities with the involvement of many administrative, political, and sectoral technical agencies and organizations, the non-formal community organizations such as ethnic armed military and religious institutions also have a strong interest in water supply and are considered dangerous actors in the water supply governance process. Diverse water actors held different perspectives and perceptions of water supply quality and quantity because of their different power holdings and political and economic interests. The state actors seemed biased on their positive performance, demonstrating their satisfaction with the current water supply governance, while community, private sectors, and household water users instead showed their dissatisfaction with the quality and quantity of the current water supply system, but they stayed neutral about the water supply governance performance. The research showed the complexity and dynamics of water actors’ powers and interests in armed conflict areas. In addition, there is a lack of socio-technical and financial capacity for the investment and maintenance of water distribution and collection infrastructure and facility, as well as water quality and quantity monitoring and evaluation. The study appeals to the development and peacebuilding organizations working in conflict areas to promote adaptive governance for community learning and adaptation to social-political and environmental change over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: public water supply governance; stakeholder salience theory; actors and institutions analysis; armed conflict; Rakhine State; Myanmar public water supply governance; stakeholder salience theory; actors and institutions analysis; armed conflict; Rakhine State; Myanmar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khaing, T.; Nguyen, T.P.L. An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Water 2022, 14, 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930

AMA Style

Khaing T, Nguyen TPL. An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Water. 2022; 14(18):2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khaing, Thin, and Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen. 2022. "An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar" Water 14, no. 18: 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930

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